BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

ASCOMYCOTA Caval.-Sm. (spore shooters)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Phylum)

Acremoniella atra (Corda) Sacc. (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus)
Sporophores - in situ
Anamorphic Species    
Acrodontium echinulatum P.M. Kirk (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Acrodontium hydnicola (Peck) de Hoog (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Acrophialophora fusispora (S.B. Saksena) Samson (a fungus) Species   1 ident refs
Actinocladium rhodosporum Ehrenb. (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Arachnophora fagicola Hennebert (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Arbusculina moniliformis (Descals) Descals & Marvanová (a fungus) Species   1 ident refs
ARTHONIOMYCETES O.E. Erikss. & Winka (a class of lichens)
ARTHONIOMYCETIDAE (a subclass of lichens), eg: Arthonia radiata (a lichen) - Thallus
Class 19 subtaxa 12 ident refs
ASCOMYCETES G. Winter (spore shooters)
Unidentified Ascomycetes (Unidentified Spore Shooters), eg: Unidentified Ascomycetes (Unidentified Spore Shooters) - Fruitbody - terminal chaetae
Class 1 subtaxon 3 ident refs
Asterosporium asterospermum (Pers.) S. Hughes (a coelomycete)
Conidia
Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Bachmanniomyces uncialicola (Zopf) D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Bactridium flavum Kunze & J.C. Schmidt (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Bispora Corda (a genus of dematiaceous anamorphic fungi) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Bispora antennata (Pers.) E.W. Mason (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus)
Bispora state  on cut Beech stump
Anamorphic Species    
Bostrichonema polygoni (Unger) J. Schrot 1897 (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Calcarisporiella thermophila (H.C. Evans) de Hoog (a fungus) Species   1 ident refs
Camarographium carpini Melnik, Crous & Verkley, 2011 (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Camarographium stephensii (Berk. & Broome) Bubák (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Camposporium Harkn. (a genus of dematiaceous anamorphic fungi) Form genus 2 subtaxa  
Camposporium marylandicum Shearer (a fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Camposporium pellucidum (Grove) S. Hughes (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Campylospora Ranzoni (a form genus of hyphomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Campylospora parvula Kuzuha (a anamorphic ascomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Ceratosporella novae-zelandiae S. Hughes (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Ceratosporella stipitata (Goid.) S. Hughes (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Chaetopsis grisea (Ehrenb.) Sacc. (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Chaetospermum chaetosporum (Pat.) A.L. Sm. & Ramsb. (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Cheirospora botryospora S. Hughes (a coelomycete)
Conidia
Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Coelomycete sp. indesc. (an undescribed coelomycete)
Pycnidia
Anamorphic Species    
Cornutispora Piroz. (a genus of lichens) Form genus   1 ident refs
Cryptocoryneum Fuckel (a genus of dematiaceous anamorphic fungi) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Cryptocoryneum condensatum (Wallr.) E.W. Mason & S. Hughes (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Cryptostroma corticale (Ellis & Everh.) P.H. Greg. & S. Waller (Sycamore Sooty Bark Disease - causative organism)
Lesion - close-up
Anamorphic Species    
Culicidospora aquatica R.H. Petersen (a fungus) Species   2 ident refs
Cystodendron dryophilus (Pass.) Bub. (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Dasyscyphus occultus (Ces.) Dennis (a discomycete) Species   1 ident refs
Dendrospora Ingold (a genus of anamorphic fungi)
Form genus 6 subtaxa 8 ident refs
Diplolaeviopsis ranula Giralt & D. Hawksw. (a lichen) Species   1 ident refs
Domingoella arctostaphyli P.M. Kirk (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
DOTHIDEOMYCETES O.E. Erikss. & Winka (a class of ascomycetes)
BOTRYOSPHAERIALES (an order of ascomycetes), eg: Phyllosticta fraxinicola (a coelomycete) - Leaf spot (with ?early pycnidia) - from top of leaf Catinella olivacea (a discomycete), eg: Catinella olivacea (a discomycete) - Fruitbody - top view HYSTERIALES (an order of ascomycetes), eg: Hysterium angustatum (a coffee bean fungus) - Hysterothecia PLEOSPOROMYCETIDAE (a subclass of ascomycetes), eg: Periconia byssoides (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) - Conidiophores STRIGULACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Strigula taylorii (an ascomycete fungus) - Thallus CAPNODIALES (sooty moulds), eg: Unidentified Ceramothyrium (Unidentified Ceramothyrium Pyrenomycetes) - Leaf with black growth
Class 349 subtaxa 366 ident refs
Dothoriopsis corni Riedl, 1974 (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Epicladonia sandstedei (Zopf) D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
EUROTIOMYCETES O.E. Erikss. & Winka (a class of fungi)
CHAETOTHYRIALES (a class of ascomycetes), eg: Capronia nigerrima (an ascomycete) - Fruitbody ENTOMOPHTHORALES (an order of entomophagous fungi), eg: Entomophthora muscae (an entomophagous fungus) - False Oat Grass inflorescence with dead hoverflies EUROTIALES (an order of ascomycetes), eg: Elaphomyces granulatus (False Truffle, Hart's Truffle) - Cordyceps capitata growing on Elaphomyces granulatus PYRENULALES (an order of ascomycetes and lichens), eg: Acrocordia conoidea (a lichen) - Perithecia VERRUCARIALES (an order of lichens), eg: Dermatocarpon miniatum (a lichen) - Thallus - moist
Class 95 subtaxa 98 ident refs
Everniicola flexispora D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous anamorphic ascomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Excipularia fusispora (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Exochalara longissima (Grove) W. Gams & Hol.-Jech. (an ascomycetous anamorph) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Exosporium tiliae Link (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Flabellospora Alas., 1968 (a genus of anamorphic fungi) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Flabellospora sp. 1 (ined) Ingold - ined (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species    
Fontanospora eccentrica (R.H. Petersen) Dyko (a fungus) Species   2 ident refs
Fujimyces oödes (Bayl. Ell.) Minter & Caine (a coelomycete)
Conidiomata - moist
Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Fusicladium (a genus of anamorphic fungi)
Form genus 3 subtaxa 4 ident refs
Gyoerffyella biappendiculata (G.R.W. Arnold) Vanev (a fungus) Species   1 ident refs
Gyoerffyella oxalidis Vanev. (a plant parasitic hyphomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Hansfordia caricis P.M. Kirk (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Hawksworthiana peltigericola (D. Hawksw.) U. Braun (a lichenicolous anamorphic ascomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Heliscella stellata (Ingold & V.J. Cox) Marvanová (a fungus)
Conidia
Species    
Hormiactella fusca (Preuss) Sacc. (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Intralichen lichenum (Diederich) D. Hawksw. & M.S. Cole (a lichen) Species   2 ident refs
Ityorhoptrum verruculosum (M.B. Ellis) P.M. Kirk (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Kionocephala catenulata (M.B. Ellis) P.M. Kirk (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
LABOULBENIOMYCETES A. Engler (laboulbeniomycetes)
LABOULBENIOMYCETIDAE (laboulbeniomycetes), eg: Symplectromyces vulgaris (a laboulbeniomycete) - Fruitbody - conidiophores
Class 45 subtaxa 62 ident refs
Laeviomyces D. Hawksw. (a form genus of a lichenicolous coelomycetes) Form genus   1 ident refs
LECANOROMYCETES O.E. Erikss. & Winka (a class of lichens)
ACAROSPOROMYCETIDAE (a subclass of lichens), eg: Acarospora fuscata (a lichen) - Thallus AGYRIALES (an order of lichens and discomycetes), eg: Trapeliopsis granulosa (a lichen) - Thallus - sterile ARTHRORHAPHIDACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Arthrorhaphis citrinella (a lichenicolous lichen) - Thallus BAEOMYCETALES (an order of lichens), eg: Baeomyces rufus (a lichen) - Thallus CANDELARIALES (an order of fungi), eg: Candelariella reflexa (a lichen) - Thallus LECANOROMYCETIDAE (a subclass of lichens), eg: Usnea florida (Witches' Whiskers Lichen) - Thallus LECIDEALES (an order of fungi), eg: Unidentified Lecidea (Unidentified Lecidea Crustose Lichens) - Thallus - close-up OSTROPALES (an order of lichens and ascomycetes), eg: Unidentified Graphis (Bot.) (Unidentified Graphis (Bot.) Lichens) - Thallus - in situ PERTUSARIALES (an order of lichens), eg: Ochrolechia parella (Parelle) - Thallus and apothecia - KC test RHIZOCARPALES (an order of fungi), eg: Toninia caeruleonigricans (a lichen) - Thallus - fertile UMBILICARIALES (an order of lichens), eg: Ophioparma ventosa (Blood-spot) - Apothecia
Class 274 subtaxa 65 ident refs
LEOTIOMYCETES O.E. Erikss. & Winka (a class of fungi)
Cyclaneusma minus (a discomycete), eg: Cyclaneusma minus (a discomycete) - Apothecia on convex side of leaf - dry ERYSIPHALES (powdery mildews), eg: Sawadaea bicornis (Sycamore Mildew) - Infected leaf - top surface HELOTIALES (an order of discomycetes and lichens), eg: Sabuloglossum arenarium (Dune Earthtongue) - Fruitbody - excavated and lain down LEOTIALES (an order of fungi), eg: Bulgaria inquinans (Black Bulgar) - Apothecia - top view RHYTISMATALES (an order of ascomycetes), eg: Unidentified Leptostroma (Unidentified Leptostroma Coelomycetes) - Pycnidia Sarea resinae (a discomycete), eg: Sarea resinae (a discomycete) - Apothecium
Class 358 subtaxa 363 ident refs
Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. & Roum. (a lichenicolous coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Lichenoconium Petr. & Syd. (a form genus of lichenicolous coelomycetes)
Form genus 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
Lichenodiplis lecanorae (Vouaux) Dyko & D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Lichenosticta alcicornaria (Linds.) D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
LICHINOMYCETES Reeb, Lutzoni & Cl. Roux (a class of lichens) Class 2 subtaxa  
LICHINOMYCETIDAE (a subclass of lichens) Subclass 2 subtaxa  
LICHINALES Henssen & Büdel (an order of lichens) Order 2 subtaxa  
LICHINACEAE Nyl. (a family of lichens) Family 2 subtaxa  
Lichina confinis (O.F. Müller) C. Agardh, 1821 (a lichen)
Thallus
Species    
Lichina pygmaea (O.F.Müller) C.Agardh, 1820 (Black Lichen)
Thallus
Species    
Linodochium hyalinum (Lib.) Höhn. (a fungus) Species   1 ident refs
LOCULOASCOMYCETES (a class of fungi)
PSEUDOSPHAERIALES (an order of fungi), eg: Platychora ulmi (an ascomycete) - Leaf underside
Class 14 subtaxa 11 ident refs
Lunulospora curvula Ingold (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Mastigosporium Riess (a genus of anamorphic ascomycetes causing grass leaf-spots) Form genus   2 ident refs
Melanocephala australiensis (G.W. Beaton & M.B. Ellis) S. Hughes (a fungus) Species   1 ident refs
Minutophoma chrysophthalmae D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Myrmecridium phragmitis Crous, 2011 Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Neta Shearer & J.L. Crane (a genus of dematiaceous anamorphs) Form genus   2 ident refs
ORBILIOMYCETES O.E. Erikss. & Baral (a class of fungi)
ORBILIOMYCETIDAE (glasscups), eg: Orbilia xanthostigma (Common Glasscup) - Apothecia
Class 22 subtaxa 30 ident refs
Parasympodiella clarkii B. Sutton (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
PEZIZOMYCETES O.E. Erikss. & Winka (a class of fungi)
PEZIZALES (an order of cup fungi and discomycetes), eg: Helvella acetabulum (Vinegar Cup) - Apothecium - side view
Class 196 subtaxa 219 ident refs
Phaeosporobolus usneae D. Hawksw. & Hafellner (a lichen) Species   1 ident refs
Piricularia aquatica (an aeroaquatic hyphomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Pleurophragmium Costantin (a genus of dematiaceous anamorphic fungi) Form genus   2 ident refs
Polyschema clavulatum (Cooke & Harkn.) M.B. Ellis (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Polyscytalum Riess (a genus of dematiaceous anamorphic fungi) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Polyscytalum truncatum B. Sutton & Hodges (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Porocladium aquaticum Descals (a fungus) Species   1 ident refs
Psammina Sacc. & M. Rousseau ex E. Bommer & M. Rousseau (a genus of lichens) Form genus   1 ident refs
Pseudoseptoria Speg. (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus   1 ident refs
Rachicladosporium pini Crous & Quaedvlieg Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Refractohilum D. Hawksw. (a genus of lichenicolous anamorphic fungi) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Refractohilum galligenum D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous anamorphic ascomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Rhinocladium pulchrum S. Hughes & Hol.-Jech. (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Rhinotrichum domesticum Balfour-brown, 1952 (a dematiaceous hyphomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Rhinotrichum lanosum Cooke (a fungus) Species   1 ident refs
SACCHAROMYCETES G. Winter (a class of yeasts)
Class 4 subtaxa 6 ident refs
Sclerococcum Fr. (a genus of lichenicolous anamorphic fungi) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Sclerococcum sphaerale (Ach.) Fr. (a lichenicolous dematiaceous anamorphic ascomycete) Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Scolecobasidium E.V. Abbott (a genus of anamorphic fungi)
Form genus 3 subtaxa 5 ident refs
Septogloeum carthusianum (Sacc.) Sacc. (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Septosporium bulbotrichum Corda (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
SORDARIOMYCETES O.E. Erikss. & Winka (a class of ascomycetes)
CHAETOSPHAERIALES (an order of fungi), eg: Cylindrotrichum oligospermum (a dematiaceous hyphomycete) - Conidiophore CORONOPHORALES (an order of fungi), eg: Bertia moriformis (Wood Mulberry) - Apothecia HYPOCREOMYCETIDAE (a subclass of ascomycetes), eg: Cordyceps ophioglossoides (Snake-tongue Truffleclub) - Fruitbody MELANOSPORALES (an order of fungi), eg: Melanospora lagenaria (an ascomycete) - Perithecia PLECTOSPHAERELLACEAE (a family of ascomycetes), eg: Spermosporina aricola (an anamorphic fungus) - Leaf spot - leaf top surface SORDARIOMYCETIDAE (a subclass of ascomycetes and lichens), eg: Arthrinium phaeospermum (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) - Colonies - in situ XYLARIOMYCETIDAE (stromatic pyrenomycetes), eg: Rosellinia britannica (a pyrenomycete) - Fruitbody
Class 330 subtaxa 398 ident refs
Spermospora lolii MacGarvie & O'Rourke (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Spermospora poagena (R. Sprague) MacGarvie & O'Rourke (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Sphaeronaema Fr. (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Sphaeronaema cornutum (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Sphaeropsis Sacc. (a form genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 2 subtaxa  
Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fr.) Dyko & B. Sutton (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   3 ident refs
Sphaeropsis visci (Alb. & Schwein.) Sacc. (a coelomycete)
Infected sprig
Anamorphic Species    
Stachylidium Link (a genus of fungi)
Genus 1 subtaxon 2 ident refs
Stilbospora Pers. (a genus of coelomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Stilbospora meridionalis (D. Sacc.) B. Sutton & Dyko (a coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Strasseria carpophila Bres. & Sacc. ex Strasser (an ascomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Subulispora britannica B. Sutton (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Subulispora minima P.M. Kirk (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Suttoniella arnaudii Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Sympodiella foliicola P.M. Kirk (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Taeniolina scripta (P. Karst.) P.M. Kirk (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
TAPHRINOMYCETES O.E. Erikss. & Winka (a class of ascomycetes)
TAPHRINOMYCETIDAE (a subclass of ascomycetes), eg: Taphrina sadebeckii (a tongue fungus) - Asci
Class 11 subtaxa 12 ident refs
Tetrachaetum elegans Ingold (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Tetraposporium ravenelii (Cooke) S. Hughes (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Torula Pers. (a genus of dematiaceous anamorphic ascomycetes) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Torula herbarum (Pers.) Link (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus)
Conidiophore mass
Anamorphic Species    
Trichoconis lichenicola D. Hawksw. (a licheniclous anamorphic ascomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Tridentaria implicans Drechsler, 1939 (a nematode-trapping fungus) Species   1 ident refs
Triscelophorus monosporus Ingold (a fungus) Species   1 ident refs
Tritirachium Limber (a genus of anamorphic ascomycetes) Form genus   1 ident refs
Troposporella fumosa P. Karst. (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Troposporella monospora (W.B. Kendr.) M.B. Ellis (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Tumularia aquatica (Ingold) Marvanová & Descals (an ascomycete)
Conidia
Species    
Utrechtiana cibiessia Crous & Quaedvlieg, 2011 Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Vouauxiella lichenicola (Linds.) Petr. & Syd. (a lichenicolous coelomycete) Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Vouauxiomyces Dyko & D. Hawksw. (a form genus of a lichenicolous coelomycetes)
Form genus 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
Xanthoriicola physciae (Kalchbr.) D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous dematiaceous anamorphic fungus)
Infected apothecia - close-up
Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Ypsilina graminea (Ingold, P.J. McDougall & Dann) Descals, J. Webster & Marvanová (an anamorphic fungus) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
(Discomycetes) (discomycete fungi)
HELOTIALES (an order of discomycetes and lichens), eg: Sabuloglossum arenarium (Dune Earthtongue) - Fruitbody - excavated and lain down
Informal 268 subtaxa 559 ident refs
(Pyrenomycetes) (charcoal fungi)
SORDARIOMYCETES (a class of ascomycetes), eg: Rosellinia britannica (a pyrenomycete) - Fruitbody
Informal 331 subtaxa 798 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Ainsworth, G.C., Sparrow, F.K. & Sussman, A.S. (eds), 1973 The Fungi, An Advanced Treatise: Volume IVA, a taxonomic review with keys: ascomycetes and fungi imperfecti
Swedish Fungi: http://swefungi.se/swindex.html Swedish Fungi
Mikologia: http://www.aranzadi.eus/micologia/a?lang=eu Mikologia
Breitenbach J., & Kränzlin F., 1984 Ascomycetes
Dennis, R.W.G., 1960 British Cup Fungi and their Allies: an Introduction to the Ascomycetes
Dennis, R.W.G., 1978 British Ascomycetes
Dennis, R.W.G., 1981 British Ascomycetes: Addenda and Corrigenda
Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1998 Microfungi on Miscellaneous Substrates: An Identification Handbook
Ellis, M.B., 1971 (Anamorphic states with pigmented conidia or hyphae.) Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes
Ellis, M.B., 1976 (Anamorphic states with pigmented conidia or hyphae.) More Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes
Hansen, L & Knudsen, H, 2000 Nordic Macromycetes, Vol 1 (Ascomycetes)
Checklist of Larger Ascomycetes from Klodzko Land (Poland): http://wwkk.mikologia.pl/index.php Checklist of Larger Ascomycetes from Klodzko Land (Poland)
Phillips, R., 1981 (A good selection of the larger common species) Mushrooms & other Fungi of Great Britain & Europe
Phillips, R., 2006 (A good selection of the larger common species) Mushrooms
Thompson, P.I., 2013 Ascomycetes in colour - found and photographed in mainland Britain
von Arx, J.A. & Müller, E., translated by Butterfill, G.B., 1969 Keys to the genera of Amerospored and Didymospored Pyrenomycetes
Funghiparadise - where the ascomycetes are at home: https://www.sites.google.com/site/funghiparadise/home Funghiparadise - where the ascomycetes are at home

Aero-aquatic fungi

Descals, E. et al, 1989 Aquatic Hyphomycetes
Ingold, C.T., 1975 (Aquatic anamorphic forms) Guide to Aquatic Hyphomycetes

Dung fungi

Doveri, F., 2007 Fungi Fimicoli Italici: a guide to the recognition of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes living on faecal material
Richardson, M.J. & Watling, R., 1997 Keys to Fungi on Dung
Seifert, K., Kendrick, B. & Murase, G., 1983 (Anamorphic forms) A key to Hyphomycetes on dung

Lichenicolous fungi

Hawksworth, D.L., Atienza, V. & Coppins, B.J., in prep. Artifical Keys to the Lichenicolous Fungi of Great Britain, Ireland, the Channel Islands, Iberian Peninsula, and Canary Islands
Hawksworth, D.L., 1983 A Key to the Lichen-forming, Parasitic, Parasymbiotic and Saprophytic Fungi occurring on Lichens in the British Isles

Plant pathology

Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 Microfungi on Land Plants: An Identification Handbook
Moore, W.C., 1959 British Parasitic Fungi

Software

Laessøe, T. & Peteren, J.H., 2007 Mycokey v2.1
Laessøe, T. & Peteren, J.H., 2008 Mycokey v3.1

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 509 general literature references to ASCOMYCOTA (spore shooters)

ASCOMYCOTA may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
FUNGI S.S.
(true fungi)
Fungi s.l.

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 19533 feeding and other relationships of ASCOMYCOTA (spore shooters)

Further Information

Lab. techniques Except for a handful of larger species, microscopic examination is always required to identify ascomycetes. Staining is often necessary to make hyaline tissues and spores visible - the question is what stain to use: as a rule of thumb: if it has asci, use Melzer's Iodine; other hyaline structures can be stained with Congo Red. Anamorphic fungi generally stain well in Cotton Blue, although dematiaceous hyphomycetes generally need no staining.
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