BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

(Fungi s.l.) (fungi (in the broad sense))

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Informal)

OOMYCOTA Arx (a group of mainly plant-parasitic fungi)
OOMYCETES (a group of mainly plant-parasitic
Species 77 subtaxa 113 ident refs
FUNGI S.S. (true fungi)
Anamorphic fungi (mitosporic fungi), eg: (Coelomycetes) (stem- and leaf-fungi) - Leaf spots on leaf under surface - close-up ASCOMYCOTA (spore shooters), eg: Tuber aestivum (Summer Truffle) - Fruitbody - dried BASIDIOMYCOTA (spore droppers), eg: Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric) - Cap - top view (Ectomycorrhizal fungi) (fungi that form ectomycorrhizae), eg: Rozites caperatus (The Gypsy) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ (Gasteromycetes) (puffballs, earthstars,  earthballs, stinkhorns, truffles etc.), eg: Phallus impudicus var. impudicus (Stinkhorn) - Fruitbodies - in situ (Micromycetes) (microfungi), eg: Marchandiomyces corallinus (a lichenicolous anamorphic basidiomycete) - In situ (Macromycetes) (larger fungi, macrofungi), eg: Lactarius blennius (Slimy Milk-cap, Beech Milkcap) - Fruitbody - oblique view - in situ BLASTOCLADIOMYCOTA (a phylum of fungi), eg: Physoderma asphodeli (a chytridiomycete fungus) - Leaf top surface - lesion - close-up CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA (chytridomycete fungi, chytrids), eg: Unidentified Chytridium (Unidentified A Genus Of Chytridiomycete Fungi) - Galled Vaucheria geminata reproductive structure ZYGOMYCOTA (pin moulds), eg: Unidentified Mucor (Unidentified A Genus Of Pinmoulds) - Sporangiophores Unidentified Fungi s.s. (Unidentified True Fungi), eg: Unidentified Fungi s.s. (Unidentified True Fungi) - Fruitbody (Lichenes) (lichens), eg: (Lichenes) (lichens) - Apothecia
Informal 4158 subtaxa 4925 ident refs
ACRASIOMYCOTA Whittaker (acrasid cellular slime moulds) Phylum   2 ident refs
PLASMODIOPHOROMYCOTA Whittaker (a phylum of protozoan slime moulds) Phylum   1 ident refs
MYXOGASTREA (slime moulds)
LICEIDA (an order of slime moulds), eg: Reticularia intermedia (a slime mould) - Fruitbody - side view PHYSARIDA (an order of slime moulds), eg: Mucilago crustacea var. crustacea (a slime mould) - Fruitbody STEMONITIDA (an order of slime moulds), eg: Stemonitis flavogenita (a slime mould) - Fruitbody TRICHIIDA (an order of slime moulds), eg: Arcyria denudata (a slime mould) - Fruitbodies Unidentified Myxogastrea (Unidentified Slime Moulds), eg: Unidentified Myxogastrea (Unidentified Slime Moulds) - Plasmodium
Order 70 subtaxa 39 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Plant pathology

Ellis, M.B. & J.P., 1997 Microfungi on Land Plants: An Identification Handbook
Moore, W.C., 1959 British Parasitic Fungi

(Fungi s.l.) may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 37324 feeding and other relationships of (Fungi s.l.) (fungi (in the broad sense))

Further Information

Curation Fungal specimens are best preserved by drying.

Infected plant material can be pressed, although if there is superficial growth, this will be damaged and may be lost. Most people use gentle warmth for everything from leaf-spots to fleshy toadstools.

This can be as simple as the top of a radiator, although purpose-built driers such as those sold for drying fruit give the best results. Large fleshy species can be placed in the air stream from a fan heater for fast, effective results even with fragile species like inkcaps.

Infected leaves can be placed in folded blotting paper, lightly weighted on top to prevent them curling up too much.

The time taken to dry varies with the method, but can be from a few hours for infected leaves, overnight for small to medium toadstools, or longer for large toadstools or brackets. Large toadstools can become sealed by a dry layer on the outside, but leaving them at room temperature for a day allows the remaining moisture to soften this skin so drying can be resumed

Leaves will curl and go crisp otherwise weight is the easiest way to tell when a specimen is dry. At this point it's best to leave them at room temperature for a day to soften up, otherwise they can be very fragile.

Dried material keeps reasonably well but is attacked by a variety of pests, especially booklice and mites, and to a lesser extent museum/carpet beetles. Dried material is conventionally stored in paper envelopes, but this gives no protection from insects, so the envelopes need to be stored in batches in sealable plastic bags or boxes. Avoid storing the specimens directly in individual plastic bags as static electricity from handling the bags will make extracting the dried material all but impossible.
Lab. techniques Except for some of the more distinctive larger species, microscopic examination is always required to identify fungi. Staining is often necessary to make hyaline tissues and spores visible - the question is what stain to use: as a rule of thumb: if it has basidia, use Phloxine; if it has asci, use Melzer's Iodine; other hyaline ascomycete structures can be stained with Congo Red. Anamorphic fungi generally stain well in Cotton Blue, although dematiaceous hyphomycetes often need no staining.
Creative Commons Licence
Unless otherwise expressly stated, all original material on the BioImages website by Malcolm Storey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence.