BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

FUNGI S.S. (true fungi)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Kingdom)

Anamorphic fungi (mitosporic fungi)
Leaf spots on leaf under surface - close-up
Species aggregate   6 ident refs
ASCOMYCOTA Caval.-Sm. (spore shooters)
Acremoniella atra (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus), eg: Acremoniella atra (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) - Sporophores - in situ ARTHONIOMYCETES (a class of lichens), eg: Arthonia vinosa (a lichen) - Apothecia ASCOMYCETES (spore shooters), eg: Unidentified Ascomycetes (Unidentified Spore Shooters) - Fruitbody - terminal chaetae Asterosporium asterospermum (a coelomycete), eg: Asterosporium asterospermum (a coelomycete) - Conidia Bispora (a genus of dematiaceous anamorphic fungi), eg: Bispora antennata (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) - Bispora state  on cut Beech stump Cheirospora botryospora (a coelomycete), eg: Cheirospora botryospora (a coelomycete) - Conidia Coelomycete sp. indesc. (an undescribed coelomycete), eg: Coelomycete sp. indesc. (an undescribed coelomycete) - Pycnidia Cryptostroma corticale (Sycamore Sooty Bark Disease - causative organism), eg: Cryptostroma corticale (Sycamore Sooty Bark Disease - causative organism) - Lesion - close-up DOTHIDEOMYCETES (a class of ascomycetes), eg: Periconia byssoides (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) - Conidiophores EUROTIOMYCETES (a class of fungi), eg: Verrucaria nigrescens (a lichen) - Thallus - section Fujimyces oödes (a coelomycete), eg: Fujimyces oödes (a coelomycete) - Conidiomata - moist Heliscella stellata (a fungus), eg: Heliscella stellata (a fungus) - Conidia LABOULBENIOMYCETES (laboulbeniomycetes), eg: Symplectromyces vulgaris (a laboulbeniomycete) - Fruitbody - conidiophores LECANOROMYCETES (a class of lichens), eg: Usnea florida (Witches' Whiskers Lichen) - Thallus LEOTIOMYCETES (a class of fungi), eg: Calycina herbarum (a discomycete) - Apothecia (Discomycetes) (discomycete fungi), eg: Rutstroemia firma (Brown Cup) - Apothecia - side and top views LICHINOMYCETES (a class of lichens), eg: Lichina pygmaea (Black Lichen) - Galled thallus LOCULOASCOMYCETES (a class of fungi), eg: Platychora ulmi (an ascomycete) - Leaf underside ORBILIOMYCETES (a class of fungi), eg: Orbilia xanthostigma (Common Glasscup) - Apothecia PEZIZOMYCETES (a class of fungi), eg: Tuber aestivum (Summer Truffle) - Fruitbody - dried SORDARIOMYCETES (a class of ascomycetes), eg: Rosellinia britannica (a pyrenomycete) - Fruitbody Sphaeropsis (a form genus of coelomycetes), eg: Sphaeropsis visci (a coelomycete) - Pycnidia on leaf - close-up TAPHRINOMYCETES (a class of ascomycetes), eg: Taphrina sadebeckii (a tongue fungus) - Asci Torula (a genus of dematiaceous anamorphic ascomycetes), eg: Torula herbarum (a dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) - Colony Tumularia aquatica (an ascomycete), eg: Tumularia aquatica (an ascomycete) - Conidia Xanthoriicola physciae (a lichenicolous dematiaceous anamorphic fungus), eg: Xanthoriicola physciae (a lichenicolous dematiaceous anamorphic fungus) - Infected apothecia - close-up
Species 1823 subtaxa 1784 ident refs
BASIDIOMYCOTA R.T. Moore (spore droppers)
AGARICOMYCETES (a class of fungi), eg: Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric) - Cap - top view BASIDIOMYCETES (spore droppers), eg: Hyphodontia pallidula (a resupinate fungus) - Fruitbody ATRACTIELLOMYCETES (Atractiellomycete fungi), eg: Phleogena faginea (Fenugreek Stalkball) - In situ - top view DACRYMYCETES (a class of jelly fungi), eg: Calocera viscosa (Yellow Stagshorn) - Fruitbody EXOBASIDIOMYCETES (a class of fungi), eg: Exobasidium japonicum (a redleaf fungus) - Leaf spray with gall MICROBOTRYOMYCETES (microbotrian fungi), eg: Bauhinus tragopogonis-pratensis (Goatsbeard Smut) - Ustilospores PUCCINIOMYCETES (pucciniomycete fungi), eg: Uromyces dactylidis (Celandine Clustercup Rust) - Cluster cups on galls on under surface of host leaf TREMELLOMYCETES (a class of fungi), eg: Tremella mesenterica (Yellow Brain, Golden Jelly Fungus) - Fruitbody USTILAGINOMYCETES (smut fungi and relatives), eg: Urocystis ficariae (a smut fungus) - Ustilospores
Species 2234 subtaxa 2925 ident refs
BLASTOCLADIOMYCOTA (a phylum of fungi) Phylum 3 subtaxa  
BLASTOCLADIOMYCETES (CLASS) (a class of fungi) Class 3 subtaxa  
BLASTOCLADIALES Fitzp. (an order of chytridiomycete fungi) Order 3 subtaxa  
PHYSODERMATACEAE Sparrow (a family of chytridiomycete fungi) Family 3 subtaxa  
Physoderma asphodeli (de Bary) Karling (a chytridiomycete fungus)
Sporangia
Species    
Physoderma menthae Schroet. (a chytridiomycete fungus) Species   1 ident refs
Physoderma myriophylli (a chytridiomycete fungus) Species   1 ident refs
CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA Arx (chytridomycete fungi, chytrids)
CHYTRIDIOMYCETES (chytridomycete fungi, chytrids), eg: Unidentified Chytridium (Unidentified A Genus Of Chytridiomycete Fungi) - Galled Vaucheria geminata reproductive structure
Unidentified 48 subtaxa 53 ident refs
ZYGOMYCOTA Moreau (pin moulds)
ZYGOMYCETES (pin moulds), eg: Unidentified Mucor (Unidentified A Genus Of Pinmoulds) - Sporangiophores
Unidentified 43 subtaxa 47 ident refs
Unidentified Fungi (Class) (Unidentified A Class Of Fungi) Unidentified    
Unidentified Fungi s.s. (Unidentified True Fungi)
Fruitbody
Unidentified    
(Ectomycorrhizal fungi) (fungi that form ectomycorrhizae)
Tuber (a genus of truffles), eg: Tuber aestivum (Summer Truffle) - Fruitbody - dried Amanita (grisettes and amanitas), eg: Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric) - Cap - top view Cortinarius (webcap toadstools), eg: Cortinarius calochrous var. parvus (a webcap) - Fruitbody - side view showing cap Rozites caperatus (The Gypsy), eg: Rozites caperatus (The Gypsy) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - lain down Laccaria (deceiver toadstools), eg: Laccaria bicolor (Bicoloured Deceiver) - Cap, and fruitbody - side view showing gills and stipe Inocybe (fibrecap toadstools), eg: Inocybe leptophylla (a toadstool) - Cap Hebeloma (poisonpie toadstools), eg: Hebeloma radicosum (Rooting Poisonpie) - Fruitbody - side view Naucoria (aldercap toadstools), eg: Naucoria luteolofibrillosa (an aldercap) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ Tricholoma (knight toadstools), eg: Tricholoma fulvum (Birch Knight) - Fruitbody - side view BOLETACEAE (sponge cap toadstools), eg: Pseudoboletus parasiticus (Parasitic Bolete) - Pores at cap margin GOMPHIDIACEAE (spike toadstools), eg: Chroogomphus rutilus (Copper Spike) - Fruitbody PAXILLACEAE (a family of bolete toadstools), eg: Unidentified Paxillus (Unidentified Mycorrhizal Rollrims) - Fruitbody - oblique view - in situ RHIZOPOGONACEAE (beard truffles), eg: Rhizopogon luteolus (Yellow False Truffle, Yellow Beard Truffle) - Fruitbody - in situ SCLERODERMATACEAE (earthballs and dyeballs), eg: Scleroderma areolatum (Leopard Earthball) - Side view - showing root SUILLACEAE (a family of boletes), eg: Suillus flavidus (a bolete) - Fruitbody - young - side view showing stipe and ring - lain down RUSSULACEAE (milkcaps and russulas), eg: Lactarius blennius (Slimy Milk-cap, Beech Milkcap) - Fruitbody - oblique view - in situ Sebacina (a genus of jelly fungi), eg: Sebacina incrustans (Enveloping Crust) - Fruitbody THELEPHORALES (an order of basidiomycete fungi), eg: Bankera fuligineoalba (Drab Tooth) - Fruitbody - side view
Species 633 subtaxa 1517 ident refs
(Gasteromycetes) (puffballs, earthstars, earthballs, stinkhorns, truffles etc.)
TUBERACEAE (a family of truffles), eg: Tuber aestivum (Summer Truffle) - Fruitbody - dried HYGROPHORACEAE (waxcaps and woodwaxes), eg: Hygrocybe flavipes (Yellow-foot Waxcap, Yellow Foot Waxcap) - Fruitbody - lain down to show gills and stipe RHIZOPOGONACEAE (beard truffles), eg: Rhizopogon luteolus (Yellow False Truffle, Yellow Beard Truffle) - Fruitbody - in situ SCLERODERMATACEAE (earthballs and dyeballs), eg: Scleroderma areolatum (Leopard Earthball) - Side view - showing root GEASTRACEAE (earthstars), eg: Geastrum fimbriatum (Sessile Earthstar) - Fruitbody - underside view PHALLACEAE (stinkhorns), eg: Phallus impudicus var. impudicus (Stinkhorn) - Fruitbodies - in situ
Genus 128 subtaxa 282 ident refs
(Lichenes) (lichens)
ARTHONIACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Arthonia vinosa (a lichen) - Apothecia CHRYSOTHRICACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Chrysothrix candelaris (a lichen) - Thallus - close-up ROCCELLACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Schismatomma decolorans (a lichen) - Thallus - in situ BOTRYOSPHAERIALES (an order of ascomycetes), eg: Phyllosticta fraxinicola (a coelomycete) - Leaf spot (with ?early pycnidia) - from top of leaf Stigmidium (a genus of lichens), eg: Stigmidium ascophylli (a marine ascomycete) - Receptacle with perithecia STRIGULACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Strigula taylorii (an ascomycete fungus) - Thallus MONOBLASTIACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Acrocordia conoidea (a lichen) - Perithecia PYRENULACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Pyrenula macrospora (a lichen) - On bark - close-up XANTHOPYRENIACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Collemopsidium foveolatum (a lichen) - Colonised barnacles - close-up VERRUCARIALES (an order of lichens), eg: Verrucaria nigrescens (a lichen) - Thallus - section ARTHRORHAPHIDACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Arthrorhaphis citrinella (a lichenicolous lichen) - Thallus LECANOROMYCETIDAE (a subclass of lichens), eg: Usnea florida (Witches' Whiskers Lichen) - Thallus MICROCALICIACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Microcalicium ahlneri (a lichen) - Apothecia - top view GRAPHIDACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Graphis scripta (Script Lichen) - Thallus - young THELOTREMATACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Diploschistes gypsaceus (a lichen) - Apothecia Lichenomphalia (basidiolichen toadstools), eg: Lichenomphalia umbellifera (Heath Navel) - Fruitbodies - top view
Species 324 subtaxa 278 ident refs
(Macromycetes) (larger fungi, macrofungi)
MORCHELLACEAE (morels), eg: Morchella esculenta var. crassipes (Thick-footed Morel) - Fruitbody Peziza (a genus of cup fungi), eg: Peziza violacea (a discomycete) - Fruitbody - oblique view AGARICALES (mushrooms and toadstools), eg: Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric) - Cap - top view CORTINARIACEAE (webcaps, rootshanks and the gypsy), eg: Cortinarius calochrous var. parvus (a webcap) - Fruitbody - side view showing cap SCHIZOPHYLLACEAE (a family of basidiomycete fungi), eg: Schizophyllum commune (Splitgill, Common Porecrust) - Fruitbody - half dry - underside view AURICULARIACEAE (a family of jelly fungi), eg: Exidia glandulosa (Witches' Butter) - Fruitbody - in situ BOLETACEAE (sponge cap toadstools), eg: Pseudoboletus parasiticus (Parasitic Bolete) - Pores at cap margin GOMPHIDIACEAE (spike toadstools), eg: Chroogomphus rutilus (Copper Spike) - Fruitbody PAXILLACEAE (a family of bolete toadstools), eg: Unidentified Paxillus (Unidentified Mycorrhizal Rollrims) - Fruitbody - oblique view - in situ RHIZOPOGONACEAE (beard truffles), eg: Rhizopogon luteolus (Yellow False Truffle, Yellow Beard Truffle) - Fruitbody - in situ CANTHARELLALES (chanterelles, hedgehog fungi and some fairy clubs and resupinates), eg: Hydnum repandum (Wood Hedgehog, Hedgehog Fungus) - Clamp connection in cap tomentum HYMENOCHAETACEAE (a family of bracket fungi), eg: Hymenochaete rubiginosa (Oak Curtain Crust) - Fruitbody - in situ PHALLALES (stinkhorns, cage and coral fungi, earthstars, truffles and fairy clubs), eg: Phallus impudicus var. impudicus (Stinkhorn) - Fruitbodies - in situ RUSSULALES (an order of toadstools), eg: Lactarius blennius (Slimy Milk-cap, Beech Milkcap) - Fruitbody - oblique view - in situ THELEPHORALES (an order of basidiomycete fungi), eg: Bankera fuligineoalba (Drab Tooth) - Fruitbody - side view DACRYMYCETALES (an order of jelly fungi), eg: Calocera viscosa (Yellow Stagshorn) - Fruitbody
Variety 1790 subtaxa 4656 ident refs
(Micromycetes) (microfungi)
OOMYCOTA (a group of mainly plant-parasitic fungi), eg: Phytophthora infestans (Potato Blight, Potato Late Blight & Tomato Blight (Causative Agent)) - Lesions on leaf Anamorphic fungi (mitosporic fungi), eg: (Coelomycetes) (stem- and leaf-fungi) - Leaf spots on leaf under surface - close-up ASCOMYCOTA (spore shooters), eg: Tuber aestivum (Summer Truffle) - Fruitbody - dried Marchandiomyces corallinus (a lichenicolous anamorphic basidiomycete), eg: Marchandiomyces corallinus (a lichenicolous anamorphic basidiomycete) - In situ PUCCINIOMYCETES (pucciniomycete fungi), eg: Uromyces dactylidis (Celandine Clustercup Rust) - Cluster cups on galls on under surface of host leaf USTILAGINOMYCETES (smut fungi and relatives), eg: Urocystis ficariae (a smut fungus) - Ustilospores CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA (chytridomycete fungi, chytrids), eg: Unidentified Chytridium (Unidentified A Genus Of Chytridiomycete Fungi) - Galled Vaucheria geminata reproductive structure ZYGOMYCOTA (pin moulds), eg: Unidentified Mucor (Unidentified A Genus Of Pinmoulds) - Sporangiophores
Species 4260 subtaxa 8240 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Index of fungi pages or photographs on The Net: http://www.grzyby.pl/fglobal-directory.htm Index of fungi pages or photographs on The Net
Norwegian fungus of the month: http://www.uio.no/conferences/imc7/ Norwegian fungus of the month
Svampe: http://www.svampe.net/ Svampe
Mikologia: http://www.aranzadi.eus/micologia/a?lang=eu Mikologia
Buczacki, S., 1989 Fungi of Britain and Europe
Dickinson, C. & Lucas, J., 1979 The Encyclopedia of Mushrooms
Fungi Images on the Net: http://www.in2.dk/fungi/imageintroTxt.htm Fungi Images on the Net
Massee, G., 1911 British Fungi with a chapter on Lichens (British Fungi and Lichens)
Ryman, S., Holmasen, I., 1984 Svampar - en falthandbok
Fungi of Poland: http://www.grzyby.pl Fungi of Poland
Leif & Anita Stridvall's Botanical Site: http://www.stridvall.se/la/index.php Leif & Anita Stridvall's Botanical Site
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): http://users.skynet.be/jjw.myco.mons Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

Dung fungi

Doveri, F., 2007 Fungi Fimicoli Italici: a guide to the recognition of basidiomycetes and ascomycetes living on faecal material

Ecology

Entomogenous fungi
Leatherdale, D., 1958 Host Catalogue of British Entomogenous Fungi
Leatherdale, D., 1962 Host Catalogue of British Entomogenous Fungi: first supplement
Leatherdale, D., 1966 Host Catalogue of British Entomogenous Fungi: second supplement
Leatherdale, D., 1970 The arthropod hosts of entomogenous fungi in Britain
Fairy rings
Rutter, G., 2002 Fairy Rings

Hypogeous fungi

Montecchi A. & Sarasini, M., 2000 Funghi Ipogei D'Europa

Lichenicolous fungi

Hawksworth, D.L., 1983 A Key to the Lichen-forming, Parasitic, Parasymbiotic and Saprophytic Fungi occurring on Lichens in the British Isles

Myxomyceticolous fongi

Ing, B., 1976 More on Mouldy Myxomycetes

Myxomyceticolous fungi

Ing, B., 1974 Mouldy Myxomyxcetes
Rogerson, C.T. & Stephenson, S.L., 1993 Myxomyceticolous Fungi

Pathology

Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi

Plant galls

Darlington, A., 1968 A Pocket Encyclopedia of Plant Galls in colour
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2011 British Plant Galls
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986 Provisional Keys to British Plant Galls

Plant pathology

HYP3: Species - Crop diseases: http://www.inra.fr/internet/Produits/HYP3/species.htm HYP3: Species - Crop diseases
Phytopathology.net: http://www.phytopathology.net Phytopathology.net

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 1635 general literature references to FUNGI S.S. (true fungi)

FUNGI S.S. may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
Fungi s.l.

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 36292 feeding and other relationships of FUNGI S.S. (true fungi)

Further Information

Notes (MWS) The Fungi are a large group of organisms which are ubiquitous in terrestrial habitats. They are less abundant in freshwater habitats and comparatively rare in in the sea. Fungi are characterised by a filamentous growth form (mycelium), reproduction by haploid spores, and a sexual cycle which involves delayed nuclear fusion (dikaryon). A few groups form large sporulating colonies (mushrooms, toadstools, brackets etc).

Although usually thought of as decomposers, many have other lifestyles. Some are parasitic; a small number of these are of medical importance, but most are plant parasites and a few are economically very significant.

Other fungi form symbiotic relationships with plant roots (mycorrhiza). The fungus mycelium is able to permeate the soil further afield than the plant's root hairs and so can harvest minerals from a larger soil volume. These are made available to the plant while sugars from photosynthesis leak from the roots to the fungus. Many of the most striking autumn toadstools (Amanita, Cortinarius, Tricholoma, Boletus sl.) are mycorrhizal with forest trees (esp Oak, Beech, Hazel, Willow, Birch and Pine). Most other plants and trees are mycorrhizal with lower fungi like the Pea Truffles (Endogone). The exception is the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae, which is not known to form mycorrhizal associations and is rarely affected by Rust Fungi (the exception to the exception is Scurvy Grass - Cochlearia spp.) - this is probably due to the mustard oils which give them their distinctive flavour and smell.

Mycorrhizal fungi can be parasitised by higher plants, maybe with another fungus as intermediary. The plants formerly called "Saprophytes" fall into this category: there is insufficient nitrogen or useable carbohydrate in leaf litter to support a flowering plant.

Lichens are another example of fungi forming symbioses with photosynthetic organisms, in this case: algae or cyanobacteria. The combined organism is able to live in much harsher environments than either could alone. Some lichens grow just inside rocks (endolithic) where they wait for erosion processes to release their spores.

Prof D.L. Hawksworth has estimated that there are 6 species of fungus for every species of flowering plant, suggesting there are 1.5 million species of fungi on Earth. Less than 20% of these are known to science, although in Europe, which has been well-studied, the percentage is far greater.
Curation Fungal specimens are best preserved by drying.

Infected plant material can be lightly pressed, although if there is superficial growth, this will be damaged and may be lost. Most people use gentle warmth for everything from leaf-spots to fleshy toadstools.

This can be as simple as the top of a radiator, although purpose-built driers such as those sold for drying fruit give the best results. Large fleshy species can be placed in the air stream from a fan heater for fast, effective results even with fragile species like inkcaps.

Infected leaves can be placed in folded blotting paper, lightly weighted on top to prevent them curling up too much.

The time taken to dry varies with the method, but can be from a few hours for infected leaves, overnight for small to medium toadstools, or longer for large toadstools or brackets. Large toadstools can become sealed by a dry layer on the outside, but leaving them at room temperature for a day allows the remaining moisture to soften this skin so drying can be resumed.

Leaves will curl and go crisp otherwise weight is the easiest way to tell when a specimen is dry. At this point it's best to leave them at room temperature for a day to soften up, otherwise they can be very fragile.

Dried material keeps reasonably well but is attacked by a variety of pests, especially booklice and mites, and to a lesser extent museum/carpet beetles. Dried material is conventionally stored in paper envelopes, but this gives no protection from insects, so the envelopes need to be stored in batches in sealable plastic bags or boxes. Avoid storing the specimens directly in individual plastic bags as static electricity from handling the bags will make extracting the dried material all but impossible.
Lab. techniques Except for some of the more distinctive larger species, microscopic examination is always required to identify fungi. Staining is often necessary to make hyaline tissues and spores visible - the question is what stain to use? As a rule of thumb: if it has basidia, use Phloxine; if it has asci, use Melzer's Iodine; other hyaline ascomycete structures can be stained with Congo Red. Anamorphic fungi generally stain well in Cotton Blue, although dematiaceous hyphomycetes generally need no staining.
Taxonomic notes True fungi, including mushrooms, toadstools, cup fungi, moulds and lichens, but excluding those groups which used to be regarded as fungi until modern research showed them to be closer to algae (oomycetes) or protozoa (slime moulds).
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