BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

(Macromycetes) (larger fungi, macrofungi)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Informal)

MORCHELLACEAE Rchb. (morels)
Disciotis venosa (Bleach Cup), eg: Disciotis venosa (Bleach Cup) - Apothecium - top view Mitrophora (a genus of morels), eg: Mitrophora semilibera (Semifree Morel) - in situ - growing out of bank - looking down the bank Morchella (morels), eg: Morchella elata sensu Phillips 2006 (a morel) - Fruitbody Verpa (a genus of morels), eg: Verpa conica (Thimble Morel) - In situ
Family 11 subtaxa 9 ident refs
Peziza Fr. (a genus of cup fungi)
Peziza ammophila (Dune Cup), eg: Peziza ammophila (Dune Cup) - Fruitbody - top view Peziza ampliata (a cup fungus), eg: Peziza ampliata (a cup fungus) - Apothecium - oblique view Peziza badia (Bay Cup), eg: Peziza badia (Bay Cup) - Fruitbody - top view Peziza cerea (Cellar Cup), eg: Peziza cerea (Cellar Cup) - Fruitbodies on wet breeze blocks Peziza echinospora (Charcoal Cup), eg: Peziza echinospora (Charcoal Cup) - Fruitbody - underside Peziza proteana (a cup fungus), eg: Peziza proteana f. sparassoides (Bonfire Cauliflower) - In situ Peziza repanda (Palamino Cup), eg: Peziza repanda (Palamino Cup) - Apothecium Peziza vesiculosa (Blistered Cup), eg: Peziza vesiculosa (Blistered Cup) - Fruitbodies - in situ Peziza violacea (a discomycete), eg: Peziza violacea (a discomycete) - Apothecia - top view
Genus 21 subtaxa 19 ident refs
AGARICALES Underw. (mushrooms and toadstools)
AGARICACEAE (mushrooms, dapperlings and parasols), eg: Agaricus silvaticus (Blushing Wood Mushroom) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills and stipe - lain down AMANITACEAE (a family of fungi), eg: Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric) - Cap - top view BOLBITIACEAE (fieldcap and conecap toadstools), eg: Conocybe pubescens (a conecap) - Fruitbody - lain down CLAVARIACEAE (fairy clubs), eg: Clavaria greletii (Dark Club) - Fruitbody - lain down CORTINARIACEAE (webcaps, rootshanks and the gypsy), eg: Cortinarius calochrous var. parvus (a webcap) - Fruitbody - side view showing cap CYPHELLACEAE (a family of cyphelloid fungi), eg: Chondrostereum purpureum (Silverleaf Fungus) - Fruitbodies - young - in situ ENTOLOMATACEAE (pinkgills), eg: Entoloma chalybeum var. chalybeum (Indigo Pinkgill) - Fruitbodies - side view  - in situ FISTULINACEAE (a family of bracket fungi), eg: Fistulina hepatica (Beefsteak Fungus) - Top view HYDNANGIACEAE (a family of toadstools), eg: Laccaria amethystina (Amethyst Deceiver) - Toadstool - top view of cap HYGROPHORACEAE (waxcaps and woodwaxes), eg: Hygrocybe intermedia (Fibrous Waxcap) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills INOCYBACEAE (a family of toadstools), eg: Inocybe leptophylla (a toadstool) - Cap LYOPHYLLACEAE (a family of toadstools), eg: Tephrocybe palustris (Sphagnum Greyling) - Cap MARASMIACEAE (a family of toadstools), eg: Macrocystidia cucumis (Cucumber Cap) - Cap - in situ MYCENACEAE (bonnt toadstools and their allies), eg: Mycena chlorantha (a bonnet) - Fruitbody - side view NIACEAE (a family of marine basidiomycetes), eg: Lachnella villosa (a cyphelloid fungus) - Fruitbodies - top view Panaeolina foenisecii (Brown Mottlegill, Haymaker), eg: Panaeolina foenisecii (Brown Mottlegill, Haymaker) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ - base exposed Panaeolus (mottlegill toadstools), eg: Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus (Petticoat Mottlegill) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ PHYSALACRIACEAE (a family of chanterelles), eg: Oudemansiella mucida (Porcelain Toadstool, Porcelain Fungus, Poached Egg Toadstool) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - in situ PLEUROTACEAE (oyster fungi), eg: Hohenbuehelia auriscalpium (Spatula Oyster) - Fruitbody - top view PLUTEACEAE (a family of toadstools), eg: Pluteus leoninus (Lion Shield) - Cap - half dry PSATHYRELLACEAE (a family of inkcap and brittlestem toadstools), eg: Lacrymaria lacrymabunda (Weeping Widow) - Fruitbody - side view PTERULACEAE (a family of coral fungi), eg: Radulomyces confluens (a resupinate fungus) - Fruitbody SCHIZOPHYLLACEAE (a family of basidiomycete fungi), eg: Schizophyllum commune (Splitgill, Common Porecrust) - Fruitbody - half dry - underside view STROPHARIACEAE (a family of toadstools), eg: Hypholoma lateritium (Brick Tuft) - Fruitbodies - side view TRICHOLOMATACEAE (a family of toadstools), eg: Tricholomopsis decora (Prunes and Custard) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills TYPHULACEAE (a family of minute club fungi), eg: Typhula erythropus (Redleg Club) - Fruitbody
Order 1243 subtaxa 1624 ident refs
CORTINARIACEAE R. Heim ex Pouzar (webcaps, rootshanks and the gypsy)
Cortinarius (webcap toadstools), eg: Cortinarius calochrous var. parvus (a webcap) - Fruitbody - side view showing cap Rozites caperatus (The Gypsy), eg: Rozites caperatus (The Gypsy) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - lain down
Family 114 subtaxa 119 ident refs
SCHIZOPHYLLACEAE Quél. (a family of basidiomycete fungi) Family 3 subtaxa  
Auriculariopsis albomellea Species   1 ident refs
Schizophyllum amplum (Lév.) Nakasone (a basidiomycete fungus)
Thick-walled hairs from top surface
Species   3 ident refs
Schizophyllum commune Fr. (Splitgill, Common Porecrust)
Fruitbody - half dry - underside view
Species   2 ident refs
AURICULARIACEAE Fr. (a family of jelly fungi)
Auricularia (a genus of jelly fungi), eg: Auricularia auricula-judae (Jelly Ear, The Jew’S Ear, Judas’S Ear Fungus) - in situ Exidia (brain fungi), eg: Exidia nucleata (Crystal Brain) - Fruitbody - in situ
Family 12 subtaxa 20 ident refs
BOLETACEAE Chevall. (sponge cap toadstools)
Boletus (a genus of boletes), eg: Boletus rubellus (Ruby Bolete) - Fruitbody - top view - close-up - in situ Chalciporus piperatus (Peppery Bolete), eg: Chalciporus piperatus (Peppery Bolete) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ Leccinum (a genus of boletes), eg: Leccinum cyaneobasileucum (a bolete) - Cap - oblique view - in situ Phylloporus pelletieri (Golden-gilled Bolete), eg: Phylloporus pelletieri (Golden-gilled Bolete) - Fruitbody with forked stipe - side view showing gills - lain down Pseudoboletus parasiticus (Parasitic Bolete), eg: Pseudoboletus parasiticus (Parasitic Bolete) - Colony - top view Strobilomyces strobilaceus (Old Man Of The Woods), eg: Strobilomyces strobilaceus (Old Man Of The Woods) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ Tylopilus felleus (Bitter Bolete), eg: Tylopilus felleus (Bitter Bolete) - Fruitbody - side view Xerocomus (a genus of boletes), eg: Xerocomus communis (a bolete) - First specimen - cap - in situ
Family 75 subtaxa 123 ident refs
GOMPHIDIACEAE Maire ex Jülich (spike toadstools)
Chroogomphus rutilus (Copper Spike), eg: Chroogomphus rutilus (Copper Spike) - Fruitbody Gomphidius (spike toadstools), eg: Gomphidius roseus (Rosy Spike) - Fruitbodies - top view
Family 4 subtaxa 3 ident refs
PAXILLACEAE Lotsy (a family of bolete toadstools)
Paxillus (mycorrhizal rollrims), eg: Paxillus rubicundulus (Alder Rollrim) - Side view showing cap
Family 6 subtaxa 12 ident refs
RHIZOPOGONACEAE Gäum. & C.W. Dodge (beard truffles)
Rhizopogon (beard truffles), eg: Rhizopogon luteolus (Yellow False Truffle, Yellow Beard Truffle) - Fruitbody - in situ
Family 4 subtaxa 5 ident refs
CANTHARELLALES Gäum. (chanterelles, hedgehog fungi and some fairy clubs and resupinates)
BOTRYOBASIDIACEAE (a family of resupinate fungi), eg: Botryobasidium subcoronatum (a resupinate fungus) - Fruitbody margin CANTHARELLACEAE (chanterelles), eg: Craterellus cornucopioides (Horn Of Plenty) - In situ - cap CLAVULINACEAE (a family of fairy clubs), eg: Clavulina cinerea (a coral fungus) - Fruitbody - in situ HYDNACEAE (hedgehog fungi), eg: Hydnum repandum (Wood Hedgehog, Hedgehog Fungus) - Clamp connection in cap tomentum
Order 47 subtaxa 62 ident refs
HYMENOCHAETACEAE Imazeki & Toki (a family of bracket fungi)
Coltricia (a genus of bracket fungi), eg: Coltricia perennis (Tiger's Eye) - Fruitbody - oblique view Hymenochaete (a genus of bracket and resupinate fungi), eg: Hymenochaete rubiginosa (Oak Curtain Crust) - Fruitbody - in situ Inonotus (a genus of bracket fungi), eg: Inonotus hispidus (Shaggy Bracket) - Fruitbody Phellinus (a genus of porecrusts and brackets), eg: Phellinus ferruginosus (Rusty Porecrust) - Fruitbody Phylloporia ribis (a bracket fungus), eg: Phylloporia ribis (a bracket fungus) - Pores
Family 29 subtaxa 39 ident refs
PHALLALES E. Fisch. (stinkhorns, cage and coral fungi, earthstars, truffles and fairy clubs)
CLATHRACEAE (cage fungi), eg: Clathrus archeri (Devil's Fingers) - Reared fruitbody PHALLACEAE (stinkhorns), eg: Phallus impudicus var. impudicus (Stinkhorn) - Fruitbodies - in situ
Order 9 subtaxa 19 ident refs
RUSSULALES Kreisel ex P.M. Kirk, P.F. Cannon & J.C. David (an order of toadstools)
AMYLOSTEREACEAE (a family of fungi), eg: Amylostereum laevigatum (a resupinate fungus) - Fruitbody AURISCALPIACEAE (a family of basidiomycetes), eg: Auriscalpium vulgare (Earpick Fungus) - Fruitbody on pine cone BONDARZEWIACEAE (a family of fungi), eg: Heterobasidion annosum (Root Rot, Root Fomes, White Pocket Rot - causative organism) - Bracket - in situ HERICIACEAE (a family of lignicolous tooth fungi), eg: Hericium coralloides (Coral Tooth) - Fruitbody - side view PENIOPHORACEAE (a family of fungi), eg: Peniophora proxima (a resupinate fungus) - Fruitbody RUSSULACEAE (milkcaps and russulas), eg: Lactarius blennius (Slimy Milk-cap, Beech Milkcap) - Fruitbody - oblique view - in situ STEREACEAE (a family of fungi), eg: Aleurodiscus wakefieldiae (Pink Disco) - Fruitbody
Order 185 subtaxa 230 ident refs
THELEPHORALES Corner ex Oberw. (an order of basidiomycete fungi)
BANKERACEAE (a family of stipitate tooth fungi), eg: Bankera fuligineoalba (Drab Tooth) - Fruitbody - side view THELEPHORACEAE (a family of basidiomycete fungi), eg: Tomentella sublilacina (a resupinate fungus) - Fruitbody
Order 33 subtaxa 60 ident refs
DACRYMYCETALES Henn. (an order of jelly fungi)
DACRYMYCETACEAE (a family of jelly fungi), eg: Ditiola peziziformis (a jelly fungus) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ
Order 5 subtaxa 11 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Bon, M., 1987 The Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North-western Europe
Boudier, 1905 Icones mycologicæ, ou Iconographie des champignons de France principalement Discomycetes
Bresadola, G., 1927 Iconographia Mycologica
Brightman, F.H. & Nicholson, B.E., 1966 The Oxford Book of Flowerless Plants
Buczacki, S., 2012 Collins Fungi Guide
Cetto, B., 1970 Funghi Dal Vero
Courtecuisse, R. & Duhem, B., 1995 Mushrooms & Toadstools of Britain & Europe
Courtecuisse, R., 1999 Mushrooms of Britain and Europe
Dähncke, R.M. & S.M., 1980 700 Pilze in Farbfotos
Dam, N., Kuyper, T.W., 2013 Veldgids Paddenstoelen: Plaatjeszwammen en Boleten
Leif Goodwin Photography: http://www.leifgoodwin.co.uk/Title%20Page/MainPage.html Leif Goodwin Photography
Grünert, H. & R., 1991 Field Guide to Mushrooms of Britain and Europe
Hansen, L & Knudsen, H (Eds), 1992 Nordic Macromycetes, Vol 2 (Polyp., Bolet., Agaric., Russ.)
Hansen, L & Knudsen, H, 1997 Nordic Macromycetes, Vol 3. (Hetero., Aphylloph., Gastero.)
Henrici, A., 2002 Update on Roger Phillips' Mushrooms and other fungi of Gt. Britain & Europe, further additions and corrections
Keizer, G., 1997 Encyclopedaedia of Fungi
Laessøe, T. & del Conte, A., 1996 The Mushroom Book
Lange, J.E., 1935 Flora Agaricina Danica (5 volumes)
Lange, M. & Hora, F.B., 1963 Mushrooms and Toadstools
Ludwig, E., 2000 Pilzkompendium - band 1 - abbildungen
Marchand, A., 1971 Champignons du Nord et du Midi (9 volumes)
Orton, P.D., 1964 Notes on British Agarics II
Pacioni, G., 1985 Macdonald Encyclopedia of Mushrooms and Toadstool
RogersMushrooms: http://www.rogersmushrooms.com/ RogersMushrooms
Phillips, R., 1981 Mushrooms & other Fungi of Great Britain & Europe
Phillips, R., 2006 (A good number of species.) Mushrooms
Svrcek, M., 1983 The Hamlyn book of Mushrooms and Toadstools
Vesterholt, J., 2009 Danmarks Svampe

Microscopy

Watling, R., 1973 Identification of the Larger Fungi

Regional

Europe/Italy
Goidanich, G. & Govi , G., 1997 Funghi e Ambiente: una guida per l'amatore
France
Base de données mycologique (mycological database): http://www.mycodb.fr Base de données mycologique (mycological database)
Clés de détermination dichotomiques (dichotomous keys): http://www.mycodb.fr/key.php Clés de détermination dichotomiques (dichotomous keys)
France/Lignicolous
Fungi Growing on Wood by Gary Emberger: http://www.mycodb.fr/key.php Fungi Growing on Wood by Gary Emberger

Simplified key to genera

Clé simplifiée inspirée de l'ouvrage de Phillips: http://www.mycodb.fr/key.php Clé simplifiée inspirée de l'ouvrage de Phillips

(Macromycetes) may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
FUNGI S.S.
(true fungi)
Fungi s.l.

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 8944 feeding and other relationships of (Macromycetes) (larger fungi, macrofungi)

Further Information

Curation Fungal specimens are best preserved by drying.

Most people use gentle warmth which can be as simple as the top of a radiator, although purpose-built driers such as those sold for drying fruit give the best results. Large fleshy species can be placed in the air stream from a fan heater for fast, effective results even with fragile species like inkcaps.

The time taken to dry varies with the method, but can be overnight for small to medium toadstools, or longer for large toadstools or brackets. Large toadstools can become sealed by a dry layer on the outside, but leaving them at room temperature for a day allows the remaining moisture to soften this skin so drying can be resumed

Specimens are dry when they become very light weight. Then it's best to leave them at room temperature for a day to soften up, otherwise they can be very fragile.

Spore prints should be left to dry at room temperature for 10 or 15 minutes. They can then be protected by wrapping in aluminium foil if you wish. They should be kept with the dried specimen.

A month in a domestic freezer at -18°C will kill insect pests and avoid introducing them to the herbarium.

Dried material keeps reasonably well but is attacked by a variety of pests, especially booklice and mites, and to a lesser extent museum/carpet beetles. If allowed to breed unchecked they'll reduce Russula spp to dust and strip the hymenium off everything else including ascomycetes.

Dried material is conventionally stored in paper envelopes, but this gives no protection from insects, so the envelopes need to be stored in batches in sealable plastic bags or boxes. Avoid storing the specimens directly in individual plastic bags as static electricity from handling the bags will make extracting the dried material all but impossible.

Many people do routinely freeze their herbarium from time to time to keep it free of pests.
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