BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

(Macromycetes) (larger fungi, macrofungi)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Informal)

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Bon, M., 1987 The Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North-western Europe
Boudier, 1905 Icones mycologicæ, ou Iconographie des champignons de France principalement Discomycetes
Bresadola, G., 1927 Iconographia Mycologica
Brightman, F.H. & Nicholson, B.E., 1966 The Oxford Book of Flowerless Plants
Buczacki, S., 2012 Collins Fungi Guide
Cetto, B., 1970 Funghi Dal Vero
Courtecuisse, R. & Duhem, B., 1995 Mushrooms & Toadstools of Britain & Europe
Courtecuisse, R., 1999 Mushrooms of Britain and Europe
Dähncke, R.M. & S.M., 1980 700 Pilze in Farbfotos
Dam, N., Kuyper, T.W., 2013 Veldgids Paddenstoelen: Plaatjeszwammen en Boleten
Leif Goodwin Photography: Leif Goodwin Photography
Grünert, H. & R., 1991 Field Guide to Mushrooms of Britain and Europe
Hansen, L & Knudsen, H (Eds), 1992 Nordic Macromycetes, Vol 2 (Polyp., Bolet., Agaric., Russ.)
Hansen, L & Knudsen, H, 1997 Nordic Macromycetes, Vol 3. (Hetero., Aphylloph., Gastero.)
Henrici, A., 2002 Update on Roger Phillips' Mushrooms and other fungi of Gt. Britain & Europe, further additions and corrections
Keizer, G., 1997 Encyclopedaedia of Fungi
Laessøe, T. & del Conte, A., 1996 The Mushroom Book
Lange, J.E., 1935 Flora Agaricina Danica (5 volumes)
Lange, M. & Hora, F.B., 1963 Mushrooms and Toadstools
Ludwig, E., 2000 Pilzkompendium - band 1 - abbildungen
Marchand, A., 1971 Champignons du Nord et du Midi (9 volumes)
Orton, P.D., 1964 Notes on British Agarics II
Pacioni, G., 1985 Macdonald Encyclopedia of Mushrooms and Toadstool
RogersMushrooms: RogersMushrooms
Phillips, R., 1981 Mushrooms & other Fungi of Great Britain & Europe
Phillips, R., 2006 (A good number of species.) Mushrooms
Svrcek, M., 1983 The Hamlyn book of Mushrooms and Toadstools
Vesterholt, J., 2009 Danmarks Svampe


Watling, R., 1973 Identification of the Larger Fungi


Goidanich, G. & Govi , G., 1997 Funghi e Ambiente: una guida per l'amatore
Base de données mycologique (mycological database): Base de données mycologique (mycological database)
Clés de détermination dichotomiques (dichotomous keys): Clés de détermination dichotomiques (dichotomous keys)
Fungi Growing on Wood by Gary Emberger: Fungi Growing on Wood by Gary Emberger

Simplified key to genera

Clé simplifiée inspirée de l'ouvrage de Phillips: Clé simplifiée inspirée de l'ouvrage de Phillips

(Macromycetes) may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)
(true fungi)
Fungi s.l.

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 8933 feeding and other relationships of (Macromycetes) (larger fungi, macrofungi)

Further Information

Curation Fungal specimens are best preserved by drying.

Most people use gentle warmth which can be as simple as the top of a radiator, although purpose-built driers such as those sold for drying fruit give the best results. Large fleshy species can be placed in the air stream from a fan heater for fast, effective results even with fragile species like inkcaps.

The time taken to dry varies with the method, but can be overnight for small to medium toadstools, or longer for large toadstools or brackets. Large toadstools can become sealed by a dry layer on the outside, but leaving them at room temperature for a day allows the remaining moisture to soften this skin so drying can be resumed

Specimens are dry when they become very light weight. Then it's best to leave them at room temperature for a day to soften up, otherwise they can be very fragile.

Spore prints should be left to dry at room temperature for 10 or 15 minutes. They can then be protected by wrapping in aluminium foil if you wish. They should be kept with the dried specimen.

A month in a domestic freezer at -18°C will kill insect pests and avoid introducing them to the herbarium.

Dried material keeps reasonably well but is attacked by a variety of pests, especially booklice and mites, and to a lesser extent museum/carpet beetles. If allowed to breed unchecked they'll reduce Russula spp to dust and strip the hymenium off everything else including ascomycetes.

Dried material is conventionally stored in paper envelopes, but this gives no protection from insects, so the envelopes need to be stored in batches in sealable plastic bags or boxes. Avoid storing the specimens directly in individual plastic bags as static electricity from handling the bags will make extracting the dried material all but impossible.

Many people do routinely freeze their herbarium from time to time to keep it free of pests.
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