BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

TRACHEOPHYTA (vascular plants)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Phylum)

GINKGOOPSIDA (maidenhair tree or ginkgo) Class 1 subtaxon  
GINKGOALES (maidenhair tree or ginkgo) Order 1 subtaxon  
GINKGOACEAE (maidenhair tree or ginkgo) Family 1 subtaxon  
Ginkgo biloba L. (Maidenhair Tree or Ginkgo)
Small tree in autumn sunshine
Species    
LYCOPODIOPSIDA (CLASS) (a class of unassigneds)
LYCOPODIALES (an order of clubmosses), eg: Lycopodiella inundata (Marsh Clubmoss) - Plant SELAGINELLALES (an order of clubmosses), eg: Selaginella selaginoides (Lesser Clubmoss) - Fertile plants - close-up
Class 7 subtaxa 6 ident refs
MAGNOLIOPSIDA (flowering plants)
ACORALES (an order of flowering plants), eg: Acorus calamus (Sweet-flag) - Plants at riverside (Tall Woody Herbs), eg: Eupatorium cannabinum (Hemp Agrimony, Hemp-agrimony) - Plant EU-DICOTS (dicotyledonous flowering plants), eg: Bellis perennis (Daisy) - Flower head - close-up (Climbing plants), eg: Lonicera periclymenum (Honeysuckle) - Flower buds - just bursting (Succulent plants), eg: Sedum anglicum (English Stonecrop) - Plant - in situ LILIIDAE (monocotyledonous flowering plants), eg: Arum maculatum (Cuckoo Pint, Lords and Ladies, Lords-and-ladies) - Plant PRE-DICOTS (primitive angiosperms), eg: Magnolia grandiflora
Class 1459 subtaxa 693 ident refs
PINOPSIDA (conifers)
PINALES (an order of conifers), eg: Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine) - Tree - open grown (Introduced conifers) (conifers grown in Britain, but not native), eg: Tsuga heterophylla (Western Hemlock, Western Hemlock-spruce) - Female flower Unidentified Pinopsida (Unidentified Conifers), eg: Unidentified Pinopsida (Unidentified Conifers) - Snow-covered winter trees - in sunshine
Class 32 subtaxa 4 ident refs
(aquatic plants) (aquatic plants)
HALORAGACEAE (water-milfoils), eg: Myriophyllum verticillatum (Whorled Water-milfoil) - 4-whorled leaves ALISMATACEAE (water-plantains), eg: Baldellia ranunculoides (Lesser Water-plantain) - Flower HYDROCHARITACEAE (waterweeds), eg: Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (Frogbit) - Flower - oblique view - in situ POTAMOGETONACEAE (pondweeds), eg: Potamogeton pusillus (Lesser Pondweed) - Plant Iris pseudacorus (Yellow Iris, Yellow Flag), eg: Iris pseudacorus (Yellow Iris, Yellow Flag) - Plant TYPHACEAE (bulrushes), eg: Sparganium erectum (Branched Bur-reed) - Plant NYMPHAEACEAE (water lilies), eg: Nuphar lutea (Yellow Water-lily) - Floating on water surface
Informal 33 subtaxa 81 ident refs
(Ectomycorrhizal trees and shrubs) (ectomycorrhizal or ectotrophic mycorrhizal trees and shrubs)
(Ectomycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs) (ectomycorrhizal or ectotrophic mycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin PINACEAE (pines, firs, spruces, cedars, larches), eg: Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine) - Tree - open grown
Informal 79 subtaxa 128 ident refs
(Endomycorrhizal trees and shrubs) (endomycorrhizal or endotrophic mycorrhizal trees and shrubs)
(Endomycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs) (endomycorrhizal or endotrophic mycorrhizal broadleaved trees and shrubs), eg: Prunus laurocerasus (Cherry Laurel) - Flower spikes Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese Red-cedar), eg: Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese Red-cedar) - Foliage CUPRESSACEAE (cypresses, junipers, redwoods, and red- and incense cedars), eg: Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey Cypress) - Young tree Cedrus (cedars), eg: Cedrus atlantica 'Glauca' (Blue Atlas Cedar) - Leaf spray - upper side
Informal 97 subtaxa 112 ident refs
(Evergreen trees and shrubs) (evergreens)
Ilex (a genus of flowering plants), eg: Ilex aquifolium (Holly) - Foliage Buxus sempervirens (Box), eg: Buxus sempervirens (Box) - Flowers Rhododendron (rhododendrons and azaleas), eg: Rhododendron ponticum (Rhododendron) - Tree - in situ Quercus ilex (Holm Oak, Evergreen Oak), eg: Quercus ilex (Holm Oak, Evergreen Oak) - Foliage - from below Prunus laurocerasus (Cherry Laurel), eg: Prunus laurocerasus (Cherry Laurel) - Flower spikes ARAUCARIACEAE (monkey puzzle), eg: Araucaria araucana (Monkey Puzzle, Monkey-puzzle) - Small tree CUPRESSACEAE (cypresses, junipers, redwoods, and red- and incense cedars), eg: Cupressus macrocarpa (Monterey Cypress) - Young tree Cedrus (cedars), eg: Cedrus atlantica 'Glauca' (Blue Atlas Cedar) - Leaf spray - upper side Picea (spruces), eg: Picea sitchensis (Sitka Spruce) - Leaf spray - side view Pinus (pines), eg: Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine) - Tree - open grown Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir), eg: Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) - Foliage with cones and faded flowers Tsuga heterophylla (Western Hemlock, Western Hemlock-spruce), eg: Tsuga heterophylla (Western Hemlock, Western Hemlock-spruce) - Female flower TAXACEAE (yews), eg: Taxus baccata forma baccata (Yew) - Faded male flowers - close-up
Informal 45 subtaxa 10 ident refs
(Trees) (broadleaved and coniferous trees)
(Trees with bark of high pH) (basic-barked trees), eg: Populus tremula (Aspen) - Trees - newly in leaf (Broadleaved trees) (broadleaved, frondose or deciduous trees), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin (Trees with bark of low pH) (acid-barked trees), eg: Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn) - Flower buds and leaves - underside (Trees with bark of middle pH) (neutral-barked species, mesic-barked species), eg: Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore, Great Maple) - Foliage - just coming into leaf and flower PINOPSIDA (conifers), eg: Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine) - Tree - open grown
Informal 214 subtaxa 409 ident refs
(Trees and shrubs) (trees and shrubs, including conifers)
(Broadleaved shrubs), eg: Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan Honeysuckle) - Bush - with flowers (Ectomycorrhizal trees and shrubs) (ectomycorrhizal or ectotrophic mycorrhizal trees and shrubs), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin (Endomycorrhizal trees and shrubs) (endomycorrhizal or endotrophic mycorrhizal trees and shrubs), eg: Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese Red-cedar) - Small trees PINOPSIDA (conifers), eg: Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine) - Tree - open grown
Informal 363 subtaxa 641 ident refs
(Trees with bark of high pH) (basic-barked trees)
Sambucus (elders), eg: Sambucus nigra (Elder) - Umbel - top view - close-up Populus tremula (Aspen), eg: Populus tremula (Aspen) - Trees - newly in leaf Ulmus (elms), eg: Ulmus minor subsp. angustifolia (Cornish Elm) - Bud and petiole Acer campestre (Field Maple), eg: Acer campestre (Field Maple) - Bursting buds
Informal 8 subtaxa 6 ident refs
(Trees with bark of low pH) (acid-barked trees)
(Trees with bark of pH 5.2-6.6) (slightly acid-barked trees), eg: Alnus glutinosa (Alder) - Leaf - upper side Carpinus betulus (Hornbeam), eg: Carpinus betulus (Hornbeam) - Leaf spray Castanea sativa (Sweet Chestnut), eg: Castanea sativa (Sweet Chestnut) - Tree - young (Trees with bark of pH 3.8-5.8) (very acid-barked trees), eg: Quercus robur (Pedunculate Oak) - Tree - freshly in leaf Crataegus (hawthorns), eg: Crataegus laevigata (Midland Hawthorn) - Flower buds and leaves - underside Picea (spruces), eg: Picea sitchensis (Sitka Spruce) - Leaf spray - side view (Trees with bark of pH down to 3.2) (most-acid-barked trees), eg: Pinus radiata (Monterey Pine) - Mature tree - open grown - in situ
Informal 56 subtaxa 76 ident refs
(Trees with bark of middle pH) (neutral-barked species, mesic-barked species)
Sambucus (elders), eg: Sambucus nigra (Elder) - Umbel - top view - close-up Corylus (hazels), eg: Corylus avellana (Hazel) - Nut eaten by wood mouse Salix (willows), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore, Great Maple), eg: Acer pseudoplatanus (Sycamore, Great Maple) - Foliage - just coming into leaf and flower
Informal 25 subtaxa 28 ident refs
(Trees with bark of pH 5.2-6.6) (slightly acid-barked trees)
Alnus (alders), eg: Alnus glutinosa (Alder) - Leaf - upper side Fagus (beeches), eg: Fagus sylvatica (Beech) - Tree Fraxinus (ashes), eg: Fraxinus excelsior (Ash) - Buds bursting with developing fruit below Tilia (limes), eg: Tilia platyphyllos x cordata = T. x europaea (lime) - 'Lime Avenue' at Kingston Lacy - just coming into leaf Sorbus (whitebeams), eg: Sorbus aucuparia (Rowan, Mountain Ash) - Berries - on the tree
Informal 18 subtaxa 20 ident refs
(Trees with bark of pH down to 3.2) (most-acid-barked trees)
Larix (larches), eg: Larix decidua x kaempferi = L. x marschlinsii (hybrid larch) - Female flower Pinus (pines), eg: Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine) - Tree - open grown
Informal 10 subtaxa  
(Trees, shrubs, woody and climbing plants) (trees, shrubs, subshrubs and climbers, including conifers)
(Broadleaved shrubs), eg: Leycesteria formosa (Himalayan Honeysuckle) - Bush - with flowers (Climbing plants), eg: Lonicera periclymenum (Honeysuckle) - Flower buds - just bursting (Broadleaved trees) (broadleaved, frondose or deciduous trees), eg: Salix pentandra (Bay Willow) - Leaf spray - with fruiting catkin (Woody plants) (subshrubs), eg: Helianthemum nummularium ssp. nummularium (Common Rock-rose) - Flower PINOPSIDA (conifers), eg: Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine) - Tree - open grown
Informal 339 subtaxa 472 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Interactive Flora of NW Europe: http://ip30.eti.uva.nl/bis/Flora.php Interactive Flora of NW Europe
Photoflora: http://photoflora.free.fr Photoflora
UK Botany discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/UKBotany/join UK Botany discussion group
Bentham, G., revised Hooker, J.D., 1918 Handbook of the British flora: a description of the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to, or naturalised in, the British Isles. For the use of beginners and amateurs.
Blamey, M. & Fitter, R. & A., 2003 Wild Flowers of Britain and Ireland
British Ecological Society: Biological Flora Series: http://www.britishecologicalsociety.org/publications/journals/journal-of-ecology/biological-flora-of-the-british-isles/ British Ecological Society: Biological Flora Series
Butcher, R.W., 1961 A New Illustrated British Flora (2 vols)
Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Moore, D.M., 1985 Flora of the British Isles
Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Warburg, E.F., 1962 Flora of the British Isles
Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Warburg, E.F., 1968 Excursion of Flora of the British Isles
Coste, H., 1937 Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France et de la Corse et des contrées limitrophes
Keble Martin, W., 1965 The Concise British Flora in Colour
Mediterranean and Alpine flora: http://www.mittelmeerflora.de/ Mediterranean and Alpine flora
Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland: http://blumeninschwaben.de/index.htm Flora-de: Flora von Deutschland
Flora of Northern Ireland: http://www.habitas.org.uk/flora/index.html Flora of Northern Ireland
Rich, T.C.G. & Jermy, C., 1998 Plant Crib 1998
Rich, T.C.G. & Jermy, C., 2012 Plant Crib 2012
Rich, T.C.G. & M.D.B. & Perring, F.H., 1988 Plant Crib
Stace, C., 1997 New Flora of the British Isles (Ed 2)
Stace, C., 1999 Field Flora of the British Isles
Stace, C., 2010 New Flora of the British Isles (Ed 3)
Stace, C.A., Preston, C.D. & Pearman, D.A., 2015 Hybrid Flora of the British Isles
Flora of NW Europe: http://wbd.etibioinformatics.nl/bis/chaetognatha.php Flora of NW Europe
Wiggington, M.J. & Graham, G.G., 1981 Guide to the Identification of some of the more Difficult Vascular Plant Species

Aquatic plants

Haslam S, Sinker, C., Wolseley, P., 1982 British Water Plants

Drawings

Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G. & Warburg, E.F. (Roles, S.J. del), 1957 Flora of the British Isles: Illustrations
Clement, E.J., Smith, D.P.J. & Thirlwell, I.R., 2005 Illustrations of Alien Plants of the British Isles
Fitch, W.H. & Smith, W.G., 1949 Illustrations of the British Flora

Forensics

Petraco, N. & Kubic, T., 2003 Color Atlas and Manual of Microscopy for Criminalists, Chemists, and Conservators

Hybrids

Stace, C.A., Preston, C.D. & Pearman, D.A., 2015 Hybrid Flora of the British Isles
Stace, C.A., 1975 Hybridization in the British Flora

Pollen

Beug, H-J, 2004 Leitfaden der Pollenbestimmung für Mitteleuropa und angrenzende Gebiete
Chandler, J. & Rennison, D., 2005 Pollen Identification for Beekeepers: an illustrated key to accompany Rex Sawyer's book
Faegri, K. & Iversen, J., 1989 Which Plant?: Identification Keys for the North-west European Pollen Flora (extracted from the Textbook of Pollen Analysis)
Faegri, K. & Iverson, J. & Krzywinski K., 2000 Textbook of Pollen Analysis
Moore, P.D., Webb, J.A. & Collinson, M.E., 1991 Pollen Analysis
Punt, W., Blackmore, S., Hoen, P. & Stafford, P. The Northwest European Pollen Flora
Wodehouse R., 1935 Pollen grains. Their structure, identification and significance in science and medicine

Seeds

www.seabean.com: http://www.seabean.com www.seabean.com
Digital Seed Atlas (Netherlands): http://www.seeds.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/root/ Digital Seed Atlas (Netherlands)

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 614 general literature references to TRACHEOPHYTA (vascular plants)

TRACHEOPHYTA may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
PLANTAE
(plants)

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 42960 feeding and other relationships of TRACHEOPHYTA (vascular plants)

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