BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

BRYOPHYTA (mosses and Liverworts)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Phylum)

ANDREAEOPSIDA (rock mosses) Class 3 subtaxa  
ANDREAEALES (rock mosses) Order 3 subtaxa  
ANDREAEACEAE Dumort. (rock mosses) Family 3 subtaxa  
Andreaea rothii F.Weber & D.Mohr (Dusky Rock-moss)
In situ
Andreaea rupestris Hedw. (Black Rock-moss)
In situ
Unidentified Andreaea (Unidentified Rock Mosses)
Colony on rock face
ANTHOCEROTAE (hornworts) Order   1 ident refs
BRYOPSIDA (mosses)
EUBRYIDEAE (a subclass of mosses), eg: Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Little Shaggy-moss) - Close-up SPLACHNALES (an order of mosses), eg: Splachnum ampullaceum (Cruet Collar-moss) - Leaf cells - near leaf tip Unidentified Bryopsida (Unidentified Mosses), eg: Unidentified Bryopsida (Unidentified Mosses) - Plant - in situ
Class 120 subtaxa 30 ident refs
POLYTRICHOPSIDA (a class of mosses)
POLYTRICHALES (hair-mosses), eg: Unidentified Polytrichum (Unidentified A Genus Of Hair-mosses) - Plants
Class 7 subtaxa  
SPHAGNOPSIDA (bog mosses)
SPHAGNALES (bog mosses), eg: Sphagnum capillifolium (Red Bog-moss) - Plant
Class 11 subtaxa 6 ident refs
TETRAPHIDOPSIDA (a class of mosses) Class 1 subtaxon  
TETRAPHIDALES (an order of mosses) Order 1 subtaxon  
TETRAPHIDACEAE Schimp. (a family of mosses) Family 1 subtaxon  
Tetraphis pellucida Hedw. (Pellucid Four-tooth Moss)
Leaf cells from gemmiferous bract

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Atherton, I., Bosanquet, S. & Lawley, M. (eds), 2010 British Mosses and Liverworts - a field guide
Casa, C., Brugues, M., Cros, R.M. & Sergio, C., 2006 Handbook of Mosses of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands
Edwards, S., 2006 Mosses and Liverworts of Town and Garden: identification of some commoner species with a hand-lens
Frey, W. Frahm, J.-P., Fischer, E. & Lobin, W., 2006 The Liverworts, Mosses and Ferns of Europe
Jahns, H.M., 1980 Ferns, Mossses and Lichens of Britain, Northern & Central Europe
Jewell, A.L., 1955 The Observer's Book of Mosses and Liverworts
OPAL The OPAL guide to epiphytic mosses in orchards in the East of England
Phillips, R., 1980 Grasses, Ferns, Mosses and Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland
Porley, R., 2008 (Arable land species) Arable Bryophytes: Field Guide: The Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts of Cultivated Land in Britain and Ireland
Watson, E.V., 1955 British Mosses and Liverworts (Ed 1)
Watson, E.V., 1968 British Mosses and Liverworts (Ed 2)
Watson, E.V., 1981 British Mosses and Liverworts (Ed 3)
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 23 general literature references to BRYOPHYTA (mosses and Liverworts)

BRYOPHYTA may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)

BioInfo BioInfo ( has 387 feeding and other relationships of BRYOPHYTA (mosses and Liverworts)

Further Information

Photomicrography hints Photographing spores can be difficult, especially under oil immersion when they move continuously.

Various thickening agents can be used. Glycerine Jelly tends to make the spores collapse. Methyl Cellulose (aka wallpaper paste) is often used for similar purposes. Xantham Gum (on the "Free From" shelf at the supermarket), Alginate or Gelatine could also be tried.

Both methyl cellulose and xanthan gum contain structures that show up under contrast enhancement techniques (eg Phase Contrast, Differential Interference Contrast): bamboo ropes for methyl cellulose and minute granules for xanthan gum. (Either of these may vary with the source of the material).

Xanthan Gum can be prepared by adding the powder to water at about 1:5. Stir until all the white trapped air has disappeared. It keeps for at least a few weeks, but seal to keep out dust and prevent evaporation. To use touch the surface with a glass rod (or finger tip!) and touch onto the slide. As the coverslip is pressed down it will form a thin film without too many air bubbles.
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