(Lichenes)
(lichens)

Subtaxon Example images Rank Subtaxa
with images
No of
ID refs
Genus 3 illustrated subtaxa 2 ident. refs
Thallus (Click to view)
Family 9 illustrated subtaxa 7 ident. refs
Thallus (Click to view)Thallus (Click to view)Fertile thallus - close-up (Click to view)Apothecia (Click to view)Thallus (Click to view)Thallus - in situ (Click to view)
Family 9 illustrated subtaxa 5 ident. refs
Form genus 1 ident. refs
Leaf spot (with ?early pycnidia) - from top of leaf (Click to view)
Order 9 illustrated subtaxa 16 ident. refs
Family 1 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Receptacle with perithecia (Click to view)
Genus 4 illustrated subtaxa 5 ident. refs
Family 1 illustrated subtaxa
Perithecia (Click to view)
Genus 1 illustrated subtaxa
Family 10 illustrated subtaxa 13 ident. refs
Family 1 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Family 3 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
On bark - close-up  (Click to view)Perithecia - close-up (Click to view)
Genus 3 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Family 1 illustrated subtaxa
Colonised barnacles - close-up (Click to view)Colonised barnacles - close-up (Click to view)
Genus 1 illustrated subtaxa
Thallus (Click to view)
Family 2 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Family 1 illustrated subtaxa 2 ident. refs
Order 1 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Family 1 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Genus 1 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Thallus - moist (Click to view)
Order 13 illustrated subtaxa 6 ident. refs
Thallus - oblique view (Click to view)Phycobiont (Click to view)Thallus (Click to view)Thallus (Click to view)Thallus - close-up (Click to view)Apothecia (Click to view)Thallus - in situ (Click to view)Thallus - in situ (Click to view)Thallus - fertile (Click to view)Apothecia - top view (Click to view)
Subclass 234 illustrated subtaxa 50 ident. refs
Apothecia - top view (Click to view)
Family 1 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Family 1 illustrated subtaxa
Thallus (Click to view)
Genus 1 illustrated subtaxa
Apothecia (Click to view)Thallus - in situ (Click to view)Apothecia (Click to view)
Family 7 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Genus 1 illustrated subtaxa 2 ident. refs
Form genus 1 ident. refs
Form genus 1 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Form genus 1 illustrated subtaxa 2 ident. refs
Form genus 1 illustrated subtaxa 1 ident. refs
Fruitbody - side view (Click to view)
Genus 2 illustrated subtaxa 2 ident. refs
Taxonomic hierarchy:
Informal(Lichenes) (lichens)
KingdomFUNGI (true fungi)
DomainEukaryota (eukaryotes)
LifeBIOTA (living things)
standard photographs and close-ups
standard photographs and close-ups:

Click on a thumbnail to see the preview, then click on that for the full-sized image

Records of (Lichenes) (lichens) :
1: (Lichenes) (lichens)
12 Mar 2011 OSGR: SU46 51° 20' N, 1° 20' W Vice County: Berks (VC 22) England
Image 1: ThallusImage 2: Thallus (2)
2: (Lichenes) (lichens)
12 Mar 2011 OSGR: SU46 51° 20' N, 1° 20' W Vice County: Berks (VC 22) England
Image 1: Thallus
3: (Lichenes) (lichens)
6 Nov 2006 OSGR: SK15 53° 10' N, 1° 50' W Vice County: Derby (VC 57) England
on large limestone boulder, embedded in the ground
Image 1: Close-upImage 2: Apothecia and margin - magnifiedImage 3: Apothecia - magnifiedImage 4: Apothecia - magnified (2)Image 5: Apothecia - magnified (3)Image 6: Apothecia - magnified (4)Image 7: Apothecia - magnified (5)Image 8: Apothecia - magnified (6)Image 9: Apothecia - magnified (7)Image 10: Apothecia - magnified (8)Image 11: Apothecia - magnified (9)Image 12: Close-up - enlargedImage 13: Close-up - enlarged (2)Image 14: Close-up - enlarged (3)Image 15: Close-up - enlarged (4)Image 16: Margin - magnifiedImage 17: Margin - magnified (2)Image 18: Scraped thallus - magnified
4: (Lichenes) (lichens)
6 Nov 2006 OSGR: SK15 53° 10' N, 1° 50' W Vice County: Derby (VC 57) England
on large limestone boulder, embedded in the ground
Image 1: Close-up - dry stateImage 2: Close-up - moist stateImage 3: Apothecia - magnifiedImage 4: Apothecia - magnified (2)Image 5: Apothecia - magnified (3)Image 6: Apothecia - magnified (4)Image 7: Apothecia - magnified (5)Image 8: Apothecia - magnified (6)Image 9: Apothecia - magnified (7)Image 10: Apothecia - magnified (8)Image 11: Apothecia - magnified (9)Image 12: Close-up - enlargedImage 13: Close-up - enlarged (2)Image 14: Close-up - enlarged (3)Image 15: Close-up - enlarged (4)Image 16: Margin - magnifiedImage 17: Margin - magnified (2)Image 18: Thallus and margin - magnifiedImage 19: Thallus - magnifiedImage 20: Thallus - magnified (2)Image 21: Thallus - magnified (3)
5: (Lichenes) (lichens)
13 Oct 2006 OSGR: SK15 53° 10' N, 1° 50' W Vice County: Derby (VC 57) England
on vertical face of small limestone exposure
Image 1: Thallus and apothecia - in situImage 2: Thallus and apothecia - close-up - enlargedImage 3: Thallus and apothecia - close-up - highly enlarged
6: (Lichenes) (lichens)
27 Jun 2004 OSGR: SO23 51° 60' N, 3° 10' W Vice County: Brecon (VC 42) Wales
On stone on top of dry stone wall in upland valley
Image 1: LichenImage 2: Apothecia - close-up - enlargedImage 3: Apothecia - close-up - highly enlargedImage 4: Apothecia - close-up - highly enlarged (2)Image 5: Apothecia - close-up - highly enlarged (3)
7: (Lichenes) (lichens)
14 May 2003 OSGR: SU56 51° 20' N, 1° 10' W Vice County: Berks (VC 22) England
assorted lichens on roof of wooden bird table in back garden
Image 1: Lichens on roof of old wooden birdtableImage 2: Lichens on roof of old wooden birdtable (2)Image 3: Lichens on roof of old wooden birdtable (3)
8: (Lichenes) (lichens)
10 Jun 1979 OSGR: SU82 51° 0' N, 0° 40' W Vice County: West Sussex (VC 13) England
Image 1: Thallus - close-up - highly enlargedImage 2: Thallus - close-up - highly enlarged (2)
9: (Lichenes) (lichens)
26 May 1979 OSGR: SU82 51° 0' N, 0° 50' W Vice County: West Sussex (VC 13) England
on Sycamore trunk
Image 1: Apothecia - close-up - highly enlargedImage 2: Thallus - highly enlargedImage 3: Thallus - highly enlarged (2)
10: (Lichenes) (lichens) IDENTIFICATION UNCERTAIN
11 May 1979 OSGR: SD77 54° 10' N, 2° 30' W Vice County: Mid-west Yorks (VC 64) England
On acid rock
Image 1: Thallus - close-upImage 2: Thallus - in situ
11: (Lichenes) (lichens)
21 Mar 1969 OSGR: TQ20 50° 50' N, 0° 10' W Vice County: East Sussex (VC 14) England
on brick wall
Image 1: Lichens on brick

Identification Works

BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 212 general literature references relevant to (Lichenes) (lichens)

(Lichenes) (lichens) may also be covered by identification literature listed under the following higher taxa:

BioInfoBioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 1,596 host/parasite/foodplant and/or other relationships for (Lichenes) (lichens)
Lichens fade quite quickly, especially if exposed to light. Keeping in the dark helps but there's no long-term method of making them retain their colours for more than a few weeks.
Ascopores are required for accurate identifcation of many lichen species. However, lichen apothecia are long-lived structures which often contain no ripe ascospores. The most productive time is after they've been moist for a long period.
It is important to air-dry lichens as soon as possible after collection. Even a couple of days in a damp container is enough for the fungal component to start growing out and spoil the specimen.
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