BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

(Lichenes) (lichens)

Images

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Sets of Photographs

These relate to individual finds ("biological records") of the organism.

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Informal)

ARTHONIACEAE Rchb. (a family of lichens)
Arthonia (a genus of lichens), eg: Arthonia vinosa (a lichen) - Apothecia
Family 9 subtaxa 7 ident refs
CHRYSOTHRICACEAE Zahlbr. (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Chrysothrix candelaris (L.) J.R. Laundon (a lichen)
Thallus
Species    
ROCCELLACEAE Chevall. (a family of lichens)
Enterographa (a genus of lichens), eg: Enterographa crassa (a lichen) - Thallus Lecanactis (a genus of lichens), eg: Lecanactis abietina (a lichen) - Fertile thallus - close-up Lecanographa (a genus of lichens), eg: Lecanographa grumulosa (Churchyard Lecanactis) - Sorediate thallus - close-up Opegrapha (a genus of lichens), eg: Opegrapha ochrocheila (a lichen) - Apothecia Schismatomma (a genus of lichens), eg: Schismatomma decolorans (a lichen) - Thallus - in situ
Family 9 subtaxa 5 ident refs
Cornutispora Piroz. (a genus of lichens) Form genus   1 ident refs
BOTRYOSPHAERIALES C.L. Schoch, Crous & Shoemaker (an order of ascomycetes)
BOTRYOSPHAERIACEAE (a family of ascomycetes), eg: Phyllosticta fraxinicola (a coelomycete) - Leaf spot (with ?early pycnidia) - from top of leaf
Order 8 subtaxa 14 ident refs
Stigmidium Trevis. (a genus of lichens)
Stigmidium ascophylli (a marine ascomycete), eg: Stigmidium ascophylli (a marine ascomycete) - Receptacle with perithecia
Genus 4 subtaxa 5 ident refs
Abrothallus bertianus De Not. (a lichenicolous ascomycete) Species   1 ident refs
Abrothallus microspermus Tul. (a lichenicolous ascomycete) Species    
Abrothallus prodiens (Harm.) Diederich & Hafellner (a lichen) Species   1 ident refs
LICHENOTHELIACEAE Henssen (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Lichenostigma Hafellner (a genus of lichens)
Genus 1 subtaxon 2 ident refs
PARMULARIACEAE E. Müll. & Arx ex M.E. Barr (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Hemigrapha astericus (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant. ex D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous ascomycete) Species   1 ident refs
DACAMPIACEAE Körb. (a family of lichens)
Family 13 subtaxa 16 ident refs
NAETROCYMBACEAE Höhn. ex R.C. Harris (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Leptorhaphis Körb. (a genus of lichens) Genus   1 ident refs
STRIGULACEAE Zahlbr. (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Strigula taylorii (Carroll ex Nyl.) R.C. Harris (an ascomycete fungus)
Thallus
Species    
MYCOCALICIALES Tibell & Wedin (an order of lichens) Order 1 subtaxon  
MYCOCALICIACEAE A.F.W. Schmidt (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Chaenothecopsis caespitosa (W. Phillips) D. Hawksw. (a lichen) Species   1 ident refs
MONOBLASTIACEAE Walt. Watson (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Acrocordia conoidea (Fr.) Körb. (a lichen)
Perithecia
Species    
PYRENULACEAE Rabenh. (a family of lichens) Family 3 subtaxa  
Pyrenula chlorospila (Nyl.) Arnold (a lichen)
On bark - close-up
Species    
Pyrenula hibernica (Nyl.) Aptroot (Oil-stain Parmentaria) Species   1 ident refs
Pyrenula macrospora (Degel.) Coppins & P. James (a lichen)
Perithecia - close-up
Species    
XANTHOPYRENIACEAE Zahlbr. (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Collemopsidium foveolatum (A.L. Sm.) F. Mohr (a lichen)
Colonised barnacles - close-up
Species    
(Collemopsidium halodytes s.l.) (Nyl.) R.C. Harris, 1987 (a group of lichens that were formerly not distinguished) Informal 1 subtaxon  
Collemopsidium foveolatum (A.L. Sm.) F. Mohr (a lichen)
Colonised barnacles - close-up
Species    
VERRUCARIALES Mattick ex D. Hawksw. & O.E. Erikss. (an order of lichens)
VERRUCARIACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Dermatocarpon miniatum (a lichen) - Thallus - moist
Order 13 subtaxa 6 ident refs
Laeviomyces D. Hawksw. (a form genus of a lichenicolous coelomycetes) Form genus   1 ident refs
ARTHRORHAPHIDACEAE Poelt & Hafellner (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Arthrorhaphis citrinella (Ach.) Poelt (a lichenicolous lichen)
Thallus
Species    
LECANOROMYCETIDAE P.M. Kirk, P.F. Cannon, J.C. David & Stalpers ex Miadl., Lutzoni & Lumbsch, 2007 (a subclass of lichens)
CONIOCYBACEAE (a family of lichens), eg: Chaenotheca ferruginea (a lichen) - Thallus - oblique view LECANORALES (an order of lichens), eg: Usnea florida (Witches' Whiskers Lichen) - Thallus PELTIGERALES (an order of lichens), eg: Lobaria virens (a lichen) - Thallus TELOSCHISTALES (an order of lichens), eg: Microcalicium ahlneri (a lichen) - Apothecia - top view
Subclass 206 subtaxa 48 ident refs
MICROCALICIACEAE Tibell (a family of lichens) Family 1 subtaxon  
Microcalicium Vain. (a genus of lichens)
Microcalicium ahlneri (a lichen), eg: Microcalicium ahlneri (a lichen) - Apothecia - top view
Genus 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
GRAPHIDACEAE Dumort. (a family of lichens)
Graphis (Bot.) (a genus of lichens), eg: Unidentified Graphis (Bot.) (Unidentified A Genus Of Lichens) - Thallus - in situ
Family 4 subtaxa 1 ident refs
Skyttea nitschkei (Körb.) Sherwood, D. Hawksw. & Coppins (a lichenicolous discomycete) Species   2 ident refs
THELOTREMATACEAE (Nyl.) Stizenb. (a family of lichens)
Diploschistes (a genus of lichens), eg: Diploschistes gypsaceus (a lichen) - Apothecia Thelotrema (a genus of lichens), eg: Thelotrema lepadinum (Barnacle Lichen) - Apothecia
Family 4 subtaxa 1 ident refs
Psammina Sacc. & M. Rousseau ex E. Bommer & M. Rousseau (a genus of lichens) Form genus   1 ident refs
Refractohilum D. Hawksw. (a genus of lichenicolous anamorphic fungi) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Refractohilum galligenum D. Hawksw. (a lichenicolous anamorphic ascomycete) Anamorphic Species   1 ident refs
Sclerococcum Fr. (a genus of lichenicolous anamorphic fungi) Form genus 1 subtaxon  
Sclerococcum sphaerale (Ach.) Fr. (a lichenicolous dematiaceous anamorphic ascomycete) Anamorphic Species   2 ident refs
Vouauxiomyces Dyko & D. Hawksw. (a form genus of a lichenicolous coelomycetes)
Form genus 1 subtaxon 1 ident refs
Lichenomphalia alpina (Britzelm.) Redhead et al. (Sunburst Lichen) Species   1 ident refs
Lichenomphalia umbellifera (L.: Fr.) Redhead et al. (Heath Navel)
Fruitbody - side view
Species   1 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Naturhistorisk Museum Universitetet i Oslo: Lichen Herbarium Photo Gallery: http://www.nhm.uio.no/botanisk/lav/ Naturhistorisk Museum Universitetet i Oslo: Lichen Herbarium Photo Gallery
Scottish Lichenology: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/scottish_lichenology/join Scottish Lichenology
Welcome friends of lichenology!: http://botanika.bf.jcu.cz/lichenologyindex.php?pg=5 (Photo galleries) Welcome friends of lichenology!
Alvin, K.L., 1977 The Observer's Book of Lichens
Aptroot, A., Herk, K. v. & Sparrius, L.B., 2011 Veldgids Korstmossen van Duin, Heide en Stuifzand
Lichénicoles par les membres de l'AFL: http://www2.ac-lille.fr/myconord/Photos_AFL/Photos_AFL_Liste.htm Lichénicoles par les membres de l'AFL
Base de dados da Biodiversidade dos Açores: http://www.azoresbioportal.angra.uac.pt/index.php?lang=eng (A useful collection of photographs and photomicrographs) Base de dados da Biodiversidade dos Açores
Brightman, F.H. & Nicholson, B.E., 1966 The Oxford Book of Flowerless Plants
Dahl, E. & Krog, H., 1973 (Macrolichenes) Macrolichens of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden
Lichens of Belgium, Luxembourgh and northern France: http://www.lichenology.info/cgi-bin/baseportal.pl?htx=atlas Lichens of Belgium, Luxembourgh and northern France
Dobson, F.S., 2000 Lichens, an Illustrated Guide to the British and Irish Species, Ed 4
Duncan, U.K., 1970 Introduction to British Lichens
A key to some common lichens in Beds, Cambs and Northants: http://www.wildlifebcnp.org/ecology-resources.htm A key to some common lichens in Beds, Cambs and Northants
Herk, K. v. & Aptroot, A., 2013 Veldgids Korstmossen
Jahns, H.M., 1980 Ferns, Mossses and Lichens of Britain, Northern & Central Europe
Kershaw, K.A. & Alvin, K.L., 1963 The Observer's Book of Lichens
Leighton, W.A., 1851 The British Species of Angiocarpous Lichens, Elucidated by their Sporidia
OPAL, 206 The OPAL guide to epiphytic lichens in orchards in the East of England
British Pyrenocarpous Lichens (Pyrenocarps on rock) British Pyrenocarpous Lichens
Phillips, R., 1980 Grasses, Ferns, Mosses and Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland
Purvis, O.W., Coppins, B.J., Hawksworth, D.L., James, P.W. & Moore, D.M., 1992 The Lichen Flora of Great Britain & Ireland
Alan Silverside's Lichen Pages: http://www.lichens.lastdragon.org/index.html Alan Silverside's Lichen Pages
Smith, C.W., Aptroot, A., Coppins, B.J., Fletcher, A., Gilbert, O.L., James, P.A, 2009 The Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland
Leif & Anita Stridvall's Botanical Site: http://www.stridvall.se/la/index.php Leif & Anita Stridvall's Botanical Site
British Lichens: http://www.britishlichens.co.uk British Lichens
Wirth, V., 1995 Die Flechten: Baden-Württembergs (The Lichens: Baden-Württemberg)
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): http://users.skynet.be/jjw.myco.mons Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

Coastal lichens

Dobson, F. Guide to Rocky Shore Lichens
Dobson, F.S., 2010 A Field Key to Coastal and Seashore Lichens

Conservation

Lambley, P. & Wolseley, P. (Eds), 2003 Lichens in a changing pollution environment

Corticolous lichens

A key to lichens on willows and sallows in Beds, Cambs and Northants: http://www.wildlifebcnp.org/ecology-resources.htm A key to lichens on willows and sallows in Beds, Cambs and Northants
Wolseley, P., James, P. & Alexander, D., 2002 (Lichens on twigs) Key to Lichens on Twigs

Heathland lichens

Montane
Britton, A., 2008 The Montane Heathland Lichen Guide

Lichenicolous fungi

Lichens of Belgium, Luxembourgh and northern France: http://www.lichenology.info/cgi-bin/baseportal.pl?htx=atlas Lichens of Belgium, Luxembourgh and northern France

Marine

Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 2011 A Student's Guide to the Seashore

(Lichenes) may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
FUNGI S.S.
(true fungi)
Fungi s.l.

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 1509 feeding and other relationships of (Lichenes) (lichens)

Further Information

How to find Ascopores are required for accurate identifcation of many lichen species. However, lichen apothecia are long-lived structures which often contain no ripe ascospores. The most productive time is after they've been moist for a long period.
Curation Lichens fade quite quickly, especially if exposed to light. Keeping in the dark helps but there's no long-term method of making them retain their colours for more than a few weeks.
Lab. techniques It is important to air-dry lichens as soon as possible after collection. Even a couple of days in a damp container is enough for the fungal component to start growing out and spoil the specimen.
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