BioImages: The Virtual Field-Guide (UK)

AGARICALES Underw. (mushrooms and toadstools)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Order)

AGARICACEAE Chevall. (mushrooms, dapperlings and parasols)
Agaricus (true mushrooms), eg: Agaricus silvaticus (Blushing Wood Mushroom) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills and stipe - lain down Bovista (bovists, balloon fungi), eg: Bovista plumbea (Grey Puffball, Lead Balloon) - Fruitbody - side view Calvatia gigantea (Giant Puffball), eg: Calvatia gigantea (Giant Puffball) - Fruitbody Chamaemyces fracidus (Dewdrop Dapperling), eg: Chamaemyces fracidus (Dewdrop Dapperling) - Fruitbody - side view - lain down Chlorophyllum (a genus of parasols), eg: Chlorophyllum olivieri (a parasol) - Fruitbody - oblique view - in situ Coprinus (inkcaps), eg: Coprinus comatus (Shaggy Inkcap, Lawyer’S Wig) - Cap apex Crucibulum laeve (Common Bird's Nest), eg: Crucibulum laeve (Common Bird's Nest) - Fruitbody Cyathus (a genus of bird's nest fungi), eg: Cyathus striatus (Fluted Bird’S-nest, Fluted Bird's Nest) - Top view - in situ Cystoderma (powdercaps), eg: Cystoderma carcharias (Pearly Powdercap) - Sphaerocysts from cap Cystolepiota (a genus of dapperlings), eg: Cystolepiota bucknallii (Lilac Dapperling) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - lain down Handkea excipuliformis (Pestle Puffball), eg: Handkea excipuliformis (Pestle Puffball) - Side view - in situ Handkea utriformis (Mosaic Puffball), eg: Handkea utriformis (Mosaic Puffball) - Fruitbody - side view Lepiota (a genus of dapperlings), eg: Lepiota brunneoincarnata (Deadly Dapperling) - Cap Leucoagaricus (a genus of dapperlings), eg: Leucoagaricus sericifer (a dapperling) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills and ring - lain down Leucocoprinus (a genus of dapperlings), eg: Leucocoprinus brebissonii (Skullcap Dapperling) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ Lycoperdon (a genus of puffballs), eg: Lycoperdon echinatum (Spiny Puffball, Hedgehog Puffball) - Fruitbody - side view Macrolepiota (a genus of parasols), eg: Macrolepiota fuliginosa (a parasol) - Fruitbody - side view Melanophyllum (a genus of dapperlings), eg: Melanophyllum eyrei (Greenspored Dapperling) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills and stipe - lain down Tulostoma (stalkballs), eg: Tulostoma brumale (Winter Stalkball) - Fruitbodies - lain down and in situ Vascellum pratense (Meadow Puffball), eg: Vascellum pratense (Meadow Puffball) - Fruitbodies
Species 134 subtaxa 176 ident refs
AMANITACEAE R. Heim ex Pouzar (a family of fungi)
Amanita (grisettes and amanitas), eg: Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric) - Cap - top view
Species 36 subtaxa 53 ident refs
BOLBITIACEAE Singer (fieldcap and conecap toadstools)
Bolbitius (a genus of fieldcap toadstools), eg: Bolbitius titubans var. titubans (Yellow Fieldcap) - Cap - top view - in situ Conocybe (conecap toadstools), eg: Conocybe pubescens (a conecap) - Fruitbody - lain down Pholiotina (ringed conecaps), eg: Conocybe brunnea (a conecap) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - lain down
Variety 35 subtaxa 40 ident refs
CLAVARIACEAE Chevall. (fairy clubs)
Clavaria (a genus of fairy clubs), eg: Clavaria greletii (Dark Club) - Fruitbody - lain down Clavulinopsis (a genus of fairy clubs), eg: Clavulinopsis corniculata (Meadow Coral) - Fruitbody - side view Mucronella calva (a tooth fungus), eg: Mucronella calva (a tooth fungus) - Fruitbody Ramariopsis (a genus of fairy clubs and coral fungi), eg: Ramariopsis pulchella (a fairy club) - Fruitbody - side view - lain down
Species 28 subtaxa 32 ident refs
CORTINARIACEAE R. Heim ex Pouzar (webcaps, rootshanks and the gypsy)
Cortinarius (webcap toadstools), eg: Cortinarius calochrous var. parvus (a webcap) - Fruitbody - side view showing cap Rozites caperatus (The Gypsy), eg: Rozites caperatus (The Gypsy) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - lain down
Variety 109 subtaxa 112 ident refs
CYPHELLACEAE Lotsy (a family of cyphelloid fungi) Family 2 subtaxa  
Cheimonophyllum candidissimum (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Singer (an ear fungus) Species   2 ident refs
Chondrostereum purpureum (Pers.) Pouzar (Silverleaf Fungus)
Fruitbody - in situ
Species   2 ident refs
ENTOLOMATACEAE Kotl. & Pouzar (pinkgills)
Clitopilus (a genus of toadstools), eg: Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller) - Fruitbody - in situ among Rockrose - oblique view Entoloma (pinkgills), eg: Entoloma chalybeum var. chalybeum (Indigo Pinkgill) - Fruitbodies - side view  - in situ Rhodocybe (a genus of toadstools), eg: Rhodocybe melleopallens (a toadstool) - Fruitbody - lain down to show gills and stipe
Species 90 subtaxa 83 ident refs
FISTULINACEAE Lotsy (a family of bracket fungi) Family 1 subtaxon  
Fistulina hepatica (Schaeff.) With. (Beefsteak Fungus)
Fruitbody - in situ
Species    
HYDNANGIACEAE Gäum. & C.W. Dodge (a family of toadstools)
Laccaria (deceiver toadstools), eg: Laccaria bicolor (Bicoloured Deceiver) - Cap, and fruitbody - side view showing gills and stipe
Species 8 subtaxa 12 ident refs
HYGROPHORACEAE Lotsy (waxcaps and woodwaxes)
Ampulloclitocybe clavipes (Club Foot), eg: Ampulloclitocybe clavipes (Club Foot) - Cap - in situ Camarophyllopsis (fanvaults), eg: Camarophyllopsis schulzeri (a fanvault) - Fruitbody - lain down to show gills and stipe Hygrocybe (waxcaps, waxcap mushrooms), eg: Hygrocybe flavipes (Yellow-foot Waxcap, Yellow Foot Waxcap) - Fruitbody - lain down to show gills and stipe Hygrophorus (woodwax toadstools), eg: Hygrophorus persoonii (a woodwax) - Fruitbody - young - side view - lain down Lichenomphalia (basidiolichen toadstools), eg: Lichenomphalia umbellifera (Heath Navel) - Fruitbodies - top view
Species 68 subtaxa 61 ident refs
INOCYBACEAE Jülich (a family of toadstools)
Chromocyphella muscicola (a cyphellaceous fungus), eg: Chromocyphella muscicola (a cyphellaceous fungus) - Fruitbodies Crepidotus (oysterlings), eg: Crepidotus variabilis (Variable Oysterling) - Fruitbody - underside showing gills Flammulaster (a genus of toadstools), eg: Flammulaster carpophilus var. subincarnatus (a toadstool) - Cap spherocysts Inocybe (fibrecap toadstools), eg: Inocybe leptophylla (a toadstool) - Cap Phaeomarasmius (a genus of toadstools), eg: Phaeomarasmius erinaceus (a toadstool) - Fruitbody - underside view showing gills and stipe - in situ Simocybe (a genus of twiglet toadstools), eg: Simocybe centunculus var. centunculus (Dingy Twiglet) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills and stipe - in situ Tubaria (a genus of twiglet toadstools), eg: Tubaria furfuracea (Scurfy Twiglet) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills and stipe - lain down
Species 81 subtaxa 86 ident refs
LYOPHYLLACEAE Jülich (a family of toadstools)
Asterophora (piggyback or pick-a-back toadstools), eg: Asterophora parasitica (Silky Piggyback) - Fruitbody - underside showing gills and stipe - in situ Calocybe (domecaps), eg: Calocybe ionides (Violet Domecap) - Fruitbody - side view showing stipe and gills - lain down Lyophyllum (domecap toadstools), eg: Lyophyllum decastes (Clustered Domecap) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - lain down Ossicaulis lignatilis (Mealy Oyster), eg: Ossicaulis lignatilis (Mealy Oyster) - Fruitbody - side view - lain down Tephrocybe (greyling toadstools), eg: Tephrocybe palustris (Sphagnum Greyling) - Cap
Species 30 subtaxa 33 ident refs
MARASMIACEAE Roze ex Kühner (a family of toadstools)
Baeospora myosura (Conifercone Cap), eg: Baeospora myosura (Conifercone Cap) - Gills Calyptella (a genus of cyphelloid fungi), eg: Calyptella capula (a cyphelloid fungus) - Fruitbodies - close-up Campanella (a genus of toadstools), eg: Campanella caesia (an oyster) - Fruitbody - top view - close-up Crinipellis scabella (Hairy Parachute), eg: Crinipellis scabella (Hairy Parachute) - Fruitbody - top view - in situ Gymnopus (a genus of toughshank toadstools), eg: Gymnopus obscuroides (a toadstool) - Fruitbodies - in situ - top view Henningsomyces (a genus of fungi), eg: Henningsomyces candidus (a basidiomycete fungus) - Fruitbodies Hydropus (a genus of toadstools), eg: Hydropus floccipes (a toadstool) - Cheilocystidium Macrocystidia cucumis (Cucumber Cap), eg: Macrocystidia cucumis (Cucumber Cap) - Cap - in situ Marasmiellus (a genus of parachute toadstools), eg: Marasmiellus ramealis (Twig Parachute) - Fruitbody - underside Marasmius (a genus of parachute toadstools), eg: Marasmius wynneae (Pearly Parachute) - Fruitbody - side view Megacollybia platyphylla (Whitelaced Shank), eg: Megacollybia platyphylla (Whitelaced Shank) - Cap - oblique view Omphalotus illudens (Jack O’Lantern), eg: Omphalotus illudens (Jack O’Lantern) - Underside Rhodocollybia (a genus of toughshank toadstools), eg: Rhodocollybia maculata (Spotted Toughshank) - Fruitbody - side view
Species 47 subtaxa 82 ident refs
MYCENACEAE Overeem (bonnt toadstools and their allies)
Hemimycena (a genus of bonnet toadstools), eg: Hemimycena mairei (a toadstool) - Fruitbody - side view - lain down Mycena (a genus of bonnet toadstools), eg: Mycena chlorantha (a bonnet) - Fruitbody - side view Panellus (a genus of oysterling toadstools), eg: Panellus serotinus (Olive Oysterling) - Cap Resinomycena saccharifera (a toadstool), eg: Resinomycena saccharifera (a toadstool) - Three fruitbodies
Species 60 subtaxa 62 ident refs
NIACEAE Jülich (a family of marine basidiomycetes)
Lachnella (a genus of cyphelloid fungi), eg: Lachnella villosa (a cyphelloid fungus) - Fruitbodies - top view Merismodes (a genus of cyphelloid basidiomycetes), eg: Merismodes anomala (a cyphelloid basidiomycete) - Colony - dry
Genus 8 subtaxa 5 ident refs
NIDULARIACEAE Dumort. (bird's nest fungi) Family   2 ident refs
Panaeolina foenisecii (Pers.) Maire (Brown Mottlegill, Haymaker)
Fruitbody - side view - in situ - base exposed
Species   2 ident refs
Panaeolus (Fr.) Quél. (mottlegill toadstools)
Panaeolus acuminatus (Dewdrop Mottlegill), eg: Panaeolus acuminatus (Dewdrop Mottlegill) - Fruitbody - side view - lain down Panaeolus fimicola (Turf Mottlegill), eg: Panaeolus fimicola (Turf Mottlegill) - Fruitbody - side view Panaeolus papilionaceus (Petticoat Mottlegill), eg: Panaeolus papilionaceus var. papilionaceus (Petticoat Mottlegill) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ Panaeolus semiovatus (Egghead Mottlegill), eg: Panaeolus semiovatus var. semiovatus (Egghead Mottlegill) - In situ
Species 7 subtaxa 7 ident refs
PHYSALACRIACEAE Corner (a family of chanterelles)
Armillaria (honey fungi), eg: Armillaria tabescens (Ringless Honey Fungus) - Fruitbody cluster - oblique view Flammulina (velvet shanks), eg: Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes (Velvet Shank, Winter Fungus) - Fruitbodies - top view - in situ Oudemansiella (a genus of toadstools), eg: Oudemansiella mucida (Porcelain Toadstool, Porcelain Fungus, Poached Egg Toadstool) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - in situ Rhodotus palmatus (Wrinkled Peach), eg: Rhodotus palmatus (Wrinkled Peach) - Cap Strobilurus (cone cap toadstools), eg: Strobilurus tenacellus (Pinecone Cap) - Cap Xerula (a genus of toadstools), eg: Xerula radicata (Rooting Shank) - Young fruitbody - side view
Species 21 subtaxa 46 ident refs
PLEUROTACEAE Kühner (oyster fungi)
Hohenbuehelia (a genus of oyster fungi), eg: Hohenbuehelia auriscalpium (Spatula Oyster) - Fruitbody - top view Pleurotus (oyster fungi), eg: Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushroom) - Fruitbody - oblique view
Species 11 subtaxa 23 ident refs
Plicatura crispa (Pers.) Rea (a basidiomycete fungus) Species   3 ident refs
Plicatura nivea (Sommerf.) P. Karst. (a basidiomycete fungus) Species   1 ident refs
PLUTEACEAE Kotl. & Pouzar (a family of toadstools)
Pluteus (shield toadstools), eg: Pluteus leoninus (Lion Shield) - Cap - half dry Volvariella (rosegill toadstools), eg: Volvariella gloiocephala (Stubble Rosegill) - Fruitbody - young - side view showing volva - lain down
Species 30 subtaxa 59 ident refs
PSATHYRELLACEAE (Singer) Vilgalys, Moncalvo & Redhead (a family of inkcap and brittlestem toadstools)
Coprinellus (a genus of inkcaps), eg: Coprinellus radians (an inkcap) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ Coprinopsis (a genus of inkcaps), eg: Coprinopsis stercorea (an inkcap) - Fruitbody - young - side view - in situ Lacrymaria (Bot.) (weeping widow toadstools), eg: Lacrymaria lacrymabunda (Weeping Widow) - Fruitbody - side view Parasola (pleated inkcaps), eg: Parasola misera (an inkcap) - Fruitbody - young - side view - in situ Psathyrella (brittlestem toadstools), eg: Psathyrella bipellis (a brittlestem) - Fruitbody
Species 116 subtaxa 156 ident refs
PTERULACEAE Corner (a family of coral fungi)
Pterula (a genus of coral fungi), eg: Pterula caricis-pendulae (a coral fungus) - Fruitbodies Radulomyces (a genus of resupinate basidiomycetes), eg: Radulomyces confluens (a resupinate fungus) - Fruitbody
Species 8 subtaxa 11 ident refs
SCHIZOPHYLLACEAE Quél. (a family of basidiomycete fungi)
Schizophyllum amplum (a basidiomycete fungus), eg: Schizophyllum amplum (a basidiomycete fungus) - Thick-walled hairs from top surface Schizophyllum commune (Splitgill, Common Porecrust), eg: Schizophyllum commune (Splitgill, Common Porecrust) - Fruitbody - half dry - underside view
Species 4 subtaxa 6 ident refs
STROPHARIACEAE Singer & A.H. Sm. (a family of toadstools)
Agrocybe (a genus of fieldcap toadstools), eg: Agrocybe molesta (Bearded Fieldcap) - Fruitbody - side view - lain down Galerina (bell toadstools), eg: Galerina paludosa (Bog Bell) - Fruitbody - young - stipe apex and gills Gymnopilus (rustgill toadstools), eg: Gymnopilus dilepis (a rustgill) - Fruitbody - young showing veil over intact ring Hebeloma (poisonpie toadstools), eg: Hebeloma radicosum (Rooting Poisonpie) - Fruitbody - side view Hypholoma (a genus of brownie toadstools), eg: Hypholoma lateritium (Brick Tuft) - Fruitbodies - side view Kuehneromyces (a genus of woodtuft toadstools), eg: Kuehneromyces mutabilis (Sheathed Woodtuft, Velvet Tough-shank) - Fruitbodies - young - top view - in situ Leratiomyces (a genus of roundheads), eg: Leratiomyces squamosus var. squamosus (Scaly Stropharia) - Cap Melanotus (Bot.) (a genus of oysterling toadstools), eg: Melanotus horizontalis (Wood Oysterling) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - lain down Naucoria (aldercap toadstools), eg: Naucoria luteolofibrillosa (an aldercap) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ Phaeogalera (a genus of toadstools), eg: Phaeogalera dissimulans (a toadstool) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills - lain down Pholiota (scalycap toadstools), eg: Pholiota squarrosa (Shaggy Scalycap) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills, stipe and ring - lain down Psilocybe (a genus of brownie toadstools), eg: Psilocybe coprophila (a brownie) - Fruitbody - cap and stipe Stropharia (roundhead toadstools), eg: Stropharia inuncta (Smoky Roundhead) - Cap - oblique - in situ
Species 117 subtaxa 170 ident refs
TRICHOLOMATACEAE R. Heim ex Pouzar (a family of toadstools)
Arrhenia (a genus of toadstools), eg: Arrhenia peltigerina (a lichenicolous toadstool) - Fruitbody - underside view showing gills Clitocybe (funnel caps), eg: Clitocybe rivulosa (Fool's Funnel) - Cap - dry Collybia (shanklet toadstools), eg: Collybia confluens (Clustered Toughshank) - Cap underside Dendrocollybia racemosa (Branched Shanklet), eg: Dendrocollybia racemosa (Branched Shanklet) - Caps and conidiophores - in situ Dermoloma (a genus of toadstools), eg: Dermoloma cuneifolium (Crazed Cap) - Cap Gamundia striatula (a toadstool), eg: Gamundia striatula (a toadstool) - Fruitbodies Lepista (a genus of toadstools), eg: Lepista irina (Flowery Blewits) - Fruitbody - lain down to show cap Leucopaxillus (a genus of funnels), eg: Leucopaxillus giganteus (Giant Funnel) - Fruitbodies - lain down to show gills and stipe Melanoleuca (cavalier toadstools), eg: Melanoleuca melaleuca (a toadstool) - Cap Mycenella (a genus of toadstools), eg: Mycenella rubropunctata (a toadstool) - Cap Omphalina (navel toadstools), eg: Omphalina pyxidata (a navel, Omphalina patch (causative organism)) - Cap - top view Porpoloma (meadowcap toadstools), eg: Porpoloma metapodium (Mealy Meadowcap) - Fruitbody - side view showing cap Pseudoclitocybe (a genus of toadstools), eg: Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis (Goblet) - Cap - in situ Resupinatus (a genus of oysterling fungi), eg: Resupinatus trichotis (an oysterling) - Fruitbody - gills Ripartites (seamine toadstools), eg: Ripartites tricholoma (Bearded Seamine) - Fruitbody - side view - in situ Squamanita (strangler toadstools), eg: Squamanita paradoxa (Powdercap Strangler) - Cap - close-up Tricholoma (knight toadstools), eg: Tricholoma fulvum (Birch Knight) - Fruitbody - side view Tricholomopsis (custard toadstools), eg: Tricholomopsis decora (Prunes and Custard) - Fruitbody - side view showing gills
Species 158 subtaxa 239 ident refs
TYPHULACEAE Jülich (a family of minute club fungi)
Macrotyphula fistulosa (Pipe Club), eg: Macrotyphula fistulosa var. fistulosa (Pipe Club) - Fruitbodies - side view - lain down Macrotyphula juncea (Slender Club), eg: Macrotyphula juncea (Slender Club) - Fruitbodies - in situ Typhula (a genus of minute club fungi), eg: Typhula erythropus (Redleg Club) - Fruitbody
Variety 10 subtaxa 9 ident refs

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Gruppo Micologico <<G. Bresadola>> di Trento - image gallery: http://www.mtsn.tn.it/bresadola/gallery_index.asp Gruppo Micologico <<G. Bresadola>> di Trento - image gallery
Swedish Fungi: http://swefungi.se/swindex.html Swedish Fungi
Bon, M., 1997 Clitocybes, Omphales et ressemblants
Bon, M., 1999 Les Collybio-Marasmioides et ressemblants
Bresadola, G., 1927 Iconographia Mycologica
Dam, N., Kuyper, T.W., 2013 Veldgids Paddenstoelen: Plaatjeszwammen en Boleten
Henderson, D.M., Orton, P.D. & Watling, R., 1969 Agarics and Boleti - Introduction
Lange, J.E., 1935 Flora Agaricina Danica (5 volumes)
Marchand, A., 1971 Champignons du Nord et du Midi (9 volumes)
McAdam, A., 2007 Keys to the genera of Agarics and Boletes
Machiel's Website: http://www.entoloma.nl/ Machiel's Website
Orton, P.D., 1960 New Checklist of British Agarics and Boleti - Part III: Notes on genera and species in the list
Morphing Mushroom Identifier: http://www.mycokey.com/newMycoKeySite/MycoKeyIdentQuick.html Morphing Mushroom Identifier

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 401 general literature references to AGARICALES (mushrooms and toadstools)

AGARICALES may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
FUNGI S.S.
(true fungi)
BASIDIOMYCOTA
(spore droppers)
AGARICOMYCETES
(a class of fungi)
Macromycetes (via Agaricales) Fungi s.l.

BioInfo BioInfo (www.bioinfo.org.uk) has 5843 feeding and other relationships of AGARICALES (mushrooms and toadstools)

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